References - The Archive
Yes it's a shoe
All the references to plasma speaker and all massless articles in one place, over 400!

Use the Search at the top right of the table. Some example searches: klein, klein patent, commercial tweeter, corona wind paper, 1951 etc.  Use surnames, the search updates as you type so partial words are all that's needed. Add the word key to your search to reduce the number of articles to some of the more useful.

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CategoryTitle/ModelPublication/PublisherAuthor/DesignerTypeRangeYearMonthVolumePagePatent No.WebpageCountryCompanyNotes
-Use the Search above rightSort Columns By Clicking The Row Above
BookLes Causeries ScientifiquesHenri De Parville1862 Flame, Pyrophone, Unverified
BookSoundJohn TyndallFlame1867Chap 6260-301 Flames
BookThe Cyclopaedia of Electrical EngineeringGebbib Publishing Co.M. Slingo, Arthur Brooker, John PerryThermo1895Vol 2785-793, electrostatic
BookThe Electric ArcCambridge University PressHertha AyrtonArc1902 studies on the noise from arcs key
BookConduction of Electricity Through GasesJ. J. ThomsonArc Flame1903Chap 9, 13, 14417, 430-431 hiss, early arc and flame behaviour
BookDielectric Phenomena in High Voltage EngineeringMcGraw HillF.W.Peek1915Chap 5 of corona in detail
BookTelephone ApparatusD. AppletonGeorge Defrees ShepardsonArc, Thermo191747-49 on arc and thermo based phones, good references
BookElectroacoustics the analysis of transduction, and its historical backgroundCambridgeHunt, Frederick V19545, 41, 49 home page for quote. A detailed book on acoustics that ignored any massless
BookHi-Fi Loudspeakers and EnclosuresRiderAbraham CohenPlasma195639-42 section on Ionophones
BookHi-Fi Annual & Audio handbookZiff-DavisIon1958Jan Cloud Tweeter
BookThe Practical Hi-Fi Handbook Odhams PGordon J. KingPlasma1959JanChap 5106-107 about Plessey Ionophone
BookBasic AudioRiderNorman CrowhurstPlasma195985 on basic ionophone
BookHigh Quality Sound ReproductionChapman and HallJames MoirPlasma1961505-507, pic of Plessey
BookAcoustics and Vibrational PhysicsArnoldStephens Bate1966317 corona wind key
BookTheoretical AcousticsMcGraw HillMorse, Philip Mccord1968Chap 12781-808 chapter on Plasma Acoustics
BookIonized GasesOxford, Clarendon PressAlfred Von Engel1969 number of pages on aspects of sparks and arcs
BookElectroacousticsNewnes-Butterworth M. L. GayfordPlasmaTweeter1970208
BookInteraction of electric and hydrodynamic fields NaukaOstroumov G AIon1979Chap 5143-170 mechanics of plasma
BookIndustrial Plasma EngineeringJ. Reece Roth1995Vol1,2 of plasma, vol 2 also in
BookFirsts in High FidelityAudio Amateur Inc,Stephen SpicerPlasmaTweeter2000Jan245, LeakPlessey Ionophone used by Leak
BookLoudspeaker HandbookSpringer ScienceJohn Eargle20032nd ed398-402 skin depth
BookLee de Forest King of Radio Television and FilmSpringer ScienceMike AdamsArc201234,35,196,220,221 de Forest King of Radio Television and Film Springer Science Mike Adams 20121897 Circuit for a speaking flame or talking arc
BookElectroacousticsCRC PressMendel Kleiner2013487-489 very confused mixed description of massless speakers with odd terminology
BookThe Age of ElectroacousticsMIT PressRoland Wittje2016Chap 2.558-66 audio history with a war angle,excellent chapter
BookNewnes Audio and Hi-Fi Engineer's Pocket BookNewnes2016170 description of corona speaker
BookHandbook of Thermal PlasmasSpringerMaher I. Boulos, Pierre L. Fauchais, Emil Pfender2016 descriptions of everything plasma
BookCinema in FluxSpringerL. LiptonPlasmaMic2021263-267 history, Tri-Ergon history
CommercialKathodophoneHans Vogt, Josef Engl, Joseph MassollePlasmaMic1918 Hans Vogt, Josef Engl, Joseph Massolle 1918DELorenz for Tri-Ergon (1923)Or Kathodofon - used for earliest film sound recording 1922, 500V 0.25mm gap
CommercialIonophoneSiegfried KleinPlasmaTweeter1952 Siegfried Klein 1952FRAudaxA licensed Klein Ionophone
CommercialIonophone Type D15Siegfried KleinPlasmaTweeter1954 Type D15 Siegfried Klein 1954UKPlesseyA licensed Klein Ionophone
CommercialIonophon LautsprecherSiegfried KleinPlasmaTweeter1955 Deutschland TFKA licensed Klein Ionophone
CommercialIonophoneSiegfried KleinPlasmaTweeter1955 Siegfried Klein 1955SEA.E.G.A licensed Klein Ionophone
CommercialIonovacSiegfried KleinPlasmaTweeter1957, IonavacDuk-5,10 - 60, Ionavac division,Ionofone (reworked Klein Ionophone)
CommercialIonovac T-3500Siegfried KleinPlasmaTweeter1958 T-3500 Siegfried Klein 1958USElectro-Voice (electrovoice)A licensed Dukane Ionovac clone
CommercialIonofane, IonofoneFaulkus, KleinPlasmaTweeter1965, Ionofone Faulkus, Klein 1965UKFane AcousticsA licensed Ionovac clone Fane 601
CommercialP2HPlasmaTweeter1966 & WilkinsUsed a Fane 601 tweeter P2, P2H
CommercialPlasmatronicDr. Alan Hill, With Tony SalsichPlasmaTweeter1972 known, helium tank, handful made Type 1,Model 1-100-A key
CommercialTecnac IonofoneSiegfried KleinPlasmaTweeter1974 Hartung Technische AkustikLater (bad) Klein Ionovac clone
CommercialModel-1A, ReferenceNorbert SchaferPlasmaTweeter1975 bought in early (audiotrade) Acapella Ion Tweeter, or Ionovac
CommercialCorona TypeOtto Braun (Sold Ionovac In Germany)PlasmaTweeter1978 Type Otto Braun (Sold Ionovac In Germany) 1978DECorona AcousticCompany 1977-99, now Lansch Audio 314 - 514
CommercialRealonMr HataPlasmaTweeter1978 Mr Hata 1978JPReal Onkyo Co. Ltd.A late Ionofane (Klein), Refurb Mk3 listed on Amazon Japan 2014 Mk 1,2,3 ,TS-5A, PS-2000
CommercialMP-01, MP-02Siegfried KleinPlasmaTweeter1979, MP-02 Siegfried Klein 1979DEMagnatAlso in the Transpuls,MP-X-101 - featured on Tomorrows World 1984 key
CommercialDigiplasmaPlasmaTweeter1981 tweeter
CommercialPlasmasonicHenri Bondar, Jean-Claude FourriereIonFull1984 ReferenceHeadphones, few hundred made - $2000 1 key
CommercialIon TW-1PlasmaTweeter1998 (ATR)Current - Was 8,500 euro on its own, now only part of full system TW-1, TW-1S key
CommercialCorona TypeRudiger Lansche, Otto BraunPlasmaTweeter1998 AudioCurrent - Took over Corona Acoustic's designs 314 - 514
CommercialA-3000PlasmaTweeter1999 Inc.Negative ion tweeter, 15kHz+ super tweeter
CommercialPlasmasonicPlasmaMid/Tweeter2007 Voltage ResearchCurrent - tesla coil based design for shows and demos
CommercialVA, Arc One, EALBoris G. VigerPlasmaTweeter2012 Audio, Plasma VoiceSolid state plasma tweeters VA-5pro,VA6, VA7
CommercialPlasma SignatureJim JordanPlasmaTweeter2016 LoudspeakersCurrent - Recreated Ionovac
Early HistoryCorona discharge Otto Von GuerickeIon1672 discharge Otto Von Guericke 1672DEFirst observation of a corona discharge on pointed conductors
Early HistoryElectric windFrancis HauksbeeIon1709 wind Francis Hauksbee 1709UKFirst observation of the electric wind
Early HistoryElectric vapourIsaac NewtonIon1717 vapour Isaac Newton 1717UK2nd edition of Opticks notes the electric vapour
Early HistoryBrushes of lightJean Antoine NolletIon1746 of light Jean Antoine Nollet 1746FRCorona discharge observations
Early HistoryElectrical fireBenjamin FranklinIon1747 fire Benjamin Franklin 1747USElectrical fire observations to Peter Collins
Early HistoryThe electric flyBenjamin WilsonIon1750 electric fly Benjamin Wilson 1750UKBlast resembling wind, proven not to exist in vacuum
Early HistoryFeel the fireEbenezer KinnersleyIon1752 the fire Ebenezer Kinnersley 1752UKFeel the fire discharges blow on your hand
Early HistoryNot in a vacuumTiberius CavalloIon1777 in a vacuum Tiberius Cavallo 1777ITFurther proving the wind does not exist in vacuum
Early HistorySound of flame in a tubeDr Byron HigginsFlame1777 of flame in a tube Dr Byron Higgins 1777UKResonant hydrogen flame in a metal pipe
Early HistoryElectric windMichael FaradayIon1838 wind Michael Faraday 1838UKElectric wind observations
Early HistorySondhauss TubeKarl SondhaussFlame1850 Tube Karl Sondhauss 1850Sealed end glass tube
Early HistoryGas light responseJohn LeconteFlame1858 light response John Leconte 1858USObserved gas lights response to music
Early HistoryRijke TubePieter RijkeFlame1859 Tube Pieter Rijke 1859Open ended glass tube
Early HistorySinging FlameJohn TyndallFlame1867 Flame John Tyndall 1867UKRoyal Institution demonstrations Faraday, Wheatstone
Early HistoryViewing electric windAugust ToplerIon1868 electric wind August Topler 1868Invent schleiren optics and used them to view electric wind
Early HistoryPyrophoneFrederic Eugene KastnerFlame1869 known as burning harmonica or chemical harmonica
Early HistoryAerophoneThomas EdisonAir1878 Thomas Edison 1878USHere for ref, not 100% massless but an early compressed air attempt
Early HistorySinging flame or talking arcLee De ForestArc1897 flame or talking arc Lee De Forest 1897USThe earliest plasma speaker?
Early HistorySinging electric arcHermann Theodor SimonArcMusic1898 electric arc Hermann Theodor Simon 1898Similar work at the same time as Duddell on Arcs University of Gottingen
Early HistoryAuxetophoneShort & Parsons, VictorAirMusic1898 massless compressed air amplifier Horace Short, Charles Parsons
Early HistorySinging ArcWilliam Du Bois DuddellArc1899 based on carbon arc lamps
Early HistoryPoulsen ArcValdemar PoulsenArc1903 Arc Valdemar Poulsen 1903A radio transmitter based on Duddell's work Also spelt Poulson
Early HistoryTelharmoniumThaddeus CahillArcMusic1906 Thaddeus Cahill 1906Added arcs based on Duddell's work
Early HistorySinging ArcMax KohlArc1911 Arc Max Kohl 1911A demo of Duddell's design
ForumIf interested in ion drivers, found more infoAudio AsylumBondarIonFull2004 Plasmasonic extra details
ForumPlasmaSonic a headphone that puts even the OrpheusAudio AsylumBondarIonFull2004 Plasmasonic extra details
ForumDr. Hills Patent discussionAudio AsylumcfbPlasmaTweeter2004 on the Plasmatronic and Jay Philippbar
ForumForum with Ionovac detailsKlipschPlasmaTweeter2006 IonovacForum with Ionovac details 2006
ForumDuKane Ionovac InformationKlipschJack PodpleskyPlasmaTweeter2006 Ionovac and t3500 details
ForumThe Hub No moving parts No problemAudiogon2009 article/forum focused on Klein
ForumIonophonesHead-fiMeniskPlasma2009 between corona and plasma speakers, no to guide them
ForumWhat is the most highly resolving speaker you have ever heardWhats Best ForumMobiusmanIonFull2012 about John Iverson Force Field Speaker
ForumUNUSUAL speaker designsAudiokarma2013 odd speakers
ForumTrue SubbassAudio HeritageGibberPlasmaTweeter2013 of a Phonogen Model 1A? Mentions Braun Ionovac
ForumForum on the Lansche Corona tweeterSteve Hoffman forumPlasmaTweeter2014 AudioOn the Lansche Corona tweeter
ForumA forum with some bits of info in the threadHifi Sentralen2019 forum with some bits of info in the thread
ForumIonic SpeakersThe Audio Circuit2019 brief bits of info (dead site, archive link)
ForumDebunking the Myth that a Lighter DiaphragmAudio Science Review2021 in depth discussion about mass in speakers
ForumForum site with various massless speaker discussionsDIYAudio2023 great forum site with various massless speaker discussions
MagazineSinging FlameScientific AmericanFlame1877AprVol 36 No 15224 mention of the singing flame
MagazineMusic in Electric ArcsNew York TimesV.J.Y.Arc1901Apr287 public article on sound from arcs
MagazineA Speaking Incandescent LampScientific AmericanThermo1912Dec107527 that a lamp can make sound (thermal)
MagazineThe De Lange Thermal TelephoneThe Electrical ExperimenterThermo1915Mar202-204 wire amplified by diaphragm
MagazineThe How and Why of Radio ApparatusThe Electrical ExperimenterH. Winfield SecorThermo1918Jul212 the De Lange thermal phone
MagazineThe IonophoneWireless World1922Octxxxiii use of word Ionophone, but not one
MagazineWireless WavesCondenserPlasmaMic1923Sep the kathodophone
MagazineCellule thermoionique de grande puissance a atmosphere gazeuse et ions positifsL'Onde ElectriqueS. KleinPlasmaTweeter1946Oct235367-373 first paper on the Ionophone, also a microphone
MagazineIonophone CircuitryRadio ElectronicsE. Aisberg, M. BonhommePlasmaTweeter1951Dec33 Ionophone article
MagazineL IonodyneToute La RadioM. BonhommePlasmaTweeter1951Nov160291 Ionophone article
MagazineIonophoneRadio ElectronicsE. Aisberg, M. BonhommePlasmaTweeter1951Nov44-45 Ionophone article key
MagazineLes bases physiques du haut-parleur et du microphone ioniquesLa TSF Pour TousS. KleinIonMic1951OctNo.276340-342 of the Ionophone as a microphone
MagazineIonophoneToute La RadioM. BonhommePlasmaTweeter1951Oct159251 Ionophone article
MagazineIonophoneLa TSF Pour TousS. KleinPlasmaTweeter1951Sep251278 article from Klein
MagazineM. Siegfried Klein l inventeur de l ionophone recoit le grand prix de l inventionLe MondeS. KleinPlasmaTweeter1952Dec award winner
MagazineLoudspeaker Without DiaphragmWireless WorldF.L.D.PlasmaTweeter1952Jan232 Without Diaphragm Wireless World F.L.D. 1952On Klein ionophone
MagazineThe IonophoneL'Onde ElectriqueS. KleinPlasmaTweeter1952Jul304314-320 common reference article, nice and in depth key
MagazineRadio BusinessRadio ElectronicsPlasmaTweeter1952Mar18 Institute of Inventive Research early Ionophone patent
MagazineA New Speaker PrincipleSaturday ReviewEdgar VillchurPlasmaTweeter1952Sep2760-61 complete opinion article on the Ionophone key
MagazineThe reproduction of soundPhysics TodayEdgar VillchurPlasmaTweeter1952Sep510-13 to first article
MagazineQui na jamais entendu un haut-parleur ionique Audax 1952TSF et TVPlasmaTweeter1952 na jamais entendu un haut-parleur ionique Audax 1952 TSF et TV 1952First review of Audax Ionophone
MagazineInteration dans l air de deux Ultra-sonsToute La RadioS. KleinPlasmaTweeter1953Nov352-354 two ionophones at ultrasound to create interference waves
MagazineWanted:- Inertialess SpeakersRadio ElectronicsHugo Gernsback1953Oct33 piece key
MagazineSpace SoundRadio ElectronicsPlasmaTweeter1954Aug69 Ionophone early operation details
MagazineThe Ionophone DemonstratedWireless WorldA. E. FalkusPlasmaTweeter1954Jan34 early demo to the IEE
MagazineThe Ionophone is Making ProgressFunkschauPlasmaTweeter1954Jan438 Ionophone by Andre Dewald & Sohn AG, Zurich possibly
MagazineIndustry PeopleAudioPlasmaTweeter1954Jun63 of Klein and introduction to America of Ionophone
MagazineGermany Tests IonophonPopular ElectronicsPlasmaTweeter1955Nov39 Deutschland TFKKlein speaker clone but with different design
MagazineMassless Loudspeaker Developed by TelefunkenTele-Tech and Electronic IndustriesPlasmaTweeter1955Nov18 Ionophone
MagazineDevelopments in Sound Reproduction - New EquipmentWireless WorldPlasmaTweeter1956Jul335 Ionophone
MagazineLondon Letter - Britains First Audio ShowAudioRichard ArbibPlasmaTweeter1956Jun2-6 of Plessey Ionophone with pic (page 4 and 6 of article)
MagazineMarch MeetingsWireless WorldD. TombsIonFull1956Mar147 Meetings Wireless World D. Tombs 195622nd Physical Society symposium on Loudspeakers Dr. D.M. Tombs at 3.0 at the Royal Institute of British Architects
MagazineThe Corona LoudspeakerRadio and Television NewsG. ShirleyIonFull1956Oct57-59 Co.On Dr. D.M. Tombs corona key
MagazineIonovac Super-Sonic SpeakerElectronic IndustriesPlasmaTweeter1957Apr77,151 improvements of Ionovac over Ionophone
MagazineSanity FairHigh Fidelity MagazinePlasmaTweeter1957Jul84 super tweeter to end all super-tweeters
MagazineLoudspeakers of the FutureRadio ElectronicsG. ShirleyIonFull1957Nov44-46 of the Future Radio Electronics G. Shirley 1957Televex Co.On Dr. D.M. Tombs corona and Ionophone key
MagazineAll About AudioRadio NewsPlasmaTweeter1957Oct106 can be little doubt that a really perfect loudspeaker would be massless.
MagazineApplications of Corona EffectsElectronicsD. TombsIonFull195730198 of Corona Effects Electronics D. Tombs 1957A decent extra article from Tombs key
MagazineAudio Fair GuideHi-Fi NewsPlasmaTweeter1957464 News Audio Fair exhibitors with Plessey Ionophone
MagazineIonophone articleRadio und FernsehenIon1958May7296-298 article Radio und Fernsehen 1958
MagazineIonized Air Cloud for Super Hi-FiRadio-TV ExperimenterJerry SkellyPlasmaTweeter1958551134-136 Ionophone to Ionovac with detail
MagazineIonovac Speaker: Still a Brilliant FailureConsumer Reports magazinePlasmaTweeter1959May220 opinion piece key
MagazineSound Producing Unit with IonophoneRadio (Russia)E. Plotkin, B. Karateev ,V. PrutzPlasmaTweeter19591218 Producing Unit with Ionophone Radio (Russia) E. Plotkin, B. Karateev ,V. Prutz 1959Good article based on Ionophone but Russian
MagazineDischarge Loudspeaker Kills MiceThe New Scientist1960Jan100 Loudspeaker Kills Mice The New Scientist 1960Its not a great title
MagazineThe Driverless Tweeter from ParisHigh FidelityNorman EisenbergPlasmaTweeter1961Jan46 mention of the Ionovac on show
MagazineDuKane Ionovac Speaker ReviewHigh FidelityPlasmaTweeter1961Mar50 review of the Ionovac key
MagazineIntroducing the IonovacPopular ElectronicsDukanePlasmaTweeter1961MayCover, 56 Ionovac review
MagazineLo IonovacRadioramaPlasmaTweeter1962Jan42-44 review
MagazineUnderstanding Radio The Electrostatic...IonophoneRadio ConstructorW.G.MorleyPlasmaTweeter1964Nov241 description of Ionophone function
MagazineThe IonophonePractical WirelessA. E. FalkusPlasmaTweeter1965Apr1141-1143, 1194 much later from the man who first demonstrated the Ionophone to the IEE
MagazineInternational Audio Festival and FairWireless WorldPlasmaTweeter1965Jun291-292 of Ionophone, Ionofane and Ionovac and schematic
MagazineHow the Ionophone works Hi-Fi NewsPlasmaTweeter1965May the Ionophone works Hi-Fi News 1965key
MagazineIonoFane 601 Ionic Treble Unit & 603 Loudspeaker Hi-Fi NewsPlasmaTweeter1966Apr 601 Ionic Treble Unit & 603 Loudspeaker Hi-Fi News 1966Ionofane Review
MagazineFane ionoFane Model 603 LoudspeakerThe GramophonePlasmaTweeter1966May ionoFane Model 603 Loudspeaker The Gramophone 1966Ionofane Review
MagazineWhatever Happened to those Revolutionary Loudspeaker Designs?Stereo ReviewGeorge L. Augspurger1967Aug49 piece key
MagazineFlame Amplification and a better HiFi LoudspeakerPopular ElectronicsJames JosephFlame1968May47-53 A. G. Cattaneo
MagazineThe Force Field Loud-speakerAudio ForumJohn IversonIonFull1977Issue 1 Force Field Loud-speaker Audio Forum John Iverson 1977Electra Research
MagazineLe tweeter ionique RealonAudiophileJean HiragaPlasmaTweeter1978AprNo.49-17Onkyo on the Onkyo Realon speaker, Ionophone based key
MagazineTumour Eradication by RFWireless WorldJ. A. CarderPlasmaTweeter1978Feb53 from a developer of Plessey Ionophone
MagazineAmerican AudioWireless WorldJack Dinsdale and George TillettPlasmaTweeter1978Oct85,86 Plasmatronic at 1978 CES
MagazineConeless Speaker uses plasma driver (the Hill Plasmatronic)Popular ScienceJohn FreePlasmaMid/Tweeter1979Jun Speaker uses plasma driver (the Hill Plasmatronic) Popular Science John Free 1979Another Hill Plasmatronic review
MagazineHill Plasmatronics Type 1 loudspeakerStereophileJ. Gordon HoltPlasmaMid/Tweeter1980Apr web version of 1980 Plasmatronic article key
MagazineAlternative Speaker TechnologiesAudioGary Stock1980Aug6432-37 piece
MagazineLe tweeter absolut? Le transducteur ionique Klein-MagnatL'AudiophileGerard ChretienPlasmaTweeter1980Dec7-13 late Ionophone article
MagazineThe Plasmatronics speaker systemThe Absolute SoundPlasmaMid/Tweeter1980Sep5,No19276 Plasmatronics speaker system The Absolute Sound 1980Plasmatronics review
MagazineHill Plasmatronic LoudspeakerInternational Audio ReviewJ. Peter MoncrieffPlasmaMid/Tweeter19803130-135 Plasmatronic Loudspeaker International Audio Review J. Peter Moncrieff 1980Another Hill Plasmatronic review
MagazineIt was the perfect high end productWall Street JournalNelson Pass1980Front was the perfect high end product Wall Street Journal Nelson Pass 1980Public news on Nelson Pass Ion Cloud
MagazineThe Ionic ManStereophileIonFull19806,No. 1Cover, 2, Pass key
MagazineHigh Fidelity NewsHigh FidelityPeter DobbinPlasmaTweeter1981Aug13 Magnat was sold in America by Dahlquist
MagazinePlasmalautsprecher - Wandlersystem der Zukunft?HiFi ExclusivPlasma1981Nov IML tweeter key
MagazineLAS VEGAS: A glimpse of the future at the Consumer Electronics ShowElectronics AustraliaGeorge TillettPlasma1982Apr28,32 and Hill Plasmatronics at CES
MagazineUn haut-parleur a plasma froidLa Nouvelle Revue Du SonHenri BondarIonFull1982Aug5973-80 haut-parleur a plasma froid La Nouvelle Revue Du Son Henri Bondar 1982Plasmasonic info key
MagazineHaut-parleur vers une ere nouvelleLa Nouvelle Revue Du SonHenri BondarIonFull1982Jul5871-79 vers une ere nouvelle La Nouvelle Revue Du Son Henri Bondar 1982Plasmasonic info key
MagazineIon AgeHi-Fi AnswersJimmy HughesPlasmaTweeter1984JulCover, Front Cover, Tomorrow s World arch 8 1984
MagazinePlasmasonicLa Nouvelle Revue Du SonHenri BondarIonFull1984Mar76100 La Nouvelle Revue Du Son Henri Bondar 1984Plasmasonic info key
MagazineLow Inertia LoudspeakersHi-Fi NewsStanley Kelly1985Jan55-57 Inertia Loudspeakers Hi-Fi News Stanley Kelly 1985Technology overview key
MagazineThe Search for the Perfect SpeakerStereo ReviewDaniel SweenyPlasma1985Sep194 with Klein Magnat and Hill Plasmatronic
MagazineMagnat Speaker TechnologyStereo ReviewPlasmaTweeter1987Sep97 for Magnat with history, Plasma tweeter 1979
MagazineLe Haut-Parleur, meconnuScience & VieHenri-Pierre Penel198764-68 Haut-Parleur, meconnu Science & Vie Henri-Pierre Penel 1987Alain Deraedt and Pascal Freulon, with overview key
MagazineOther Types of LoudspeakerElectronics AustraliaNeville WilliamsPlasma1989Jun107-108 Ionophone background
MagazineLes Haut-Parleurs IoniquesAudiophileAlain DeraedtIon19902285-88 corona wind detail key
MagazineLes Haut-Parleurs Ioniques IIAudiophileAlain DeraedtIon1990239 corona wind detail key
MagazineLes Haut-Parleurs Ioniques (suite et fin)AudiophileAlain DeraedtIon19902415-18 corona wind detail key
MagazineNelson Pass Simple Sounds BetterStereophileThomas J. NortonIonFull1991 detail on the Ion Cloud corona loudspeaker
MagazineThe Strange Life and Bizarre Disappearance of John IversonThe Absolute SoundRobert F. SabinIon1994Jun/Jul96 good John Iverson background
MagazineTechnology Hot throat makes a safer soundNew ScientistBarry FoxPlasmaTweeter1996 Audio AGArticle on the Credo tweeter key
MagazineIonic LoudspeakersGramophoneKeith Howard1997Jan133-136 Loudspeakers Gramophone Keith Howard 1997Good overview and history key
MagazinePlasma Speaker RevivedHi-Fi NewsBarry Fox1997Jan17 Speaker Revived Hi-Fi News Barry Fox 1997A hopeful review key
MagazineComfort like a larger room CSE A-3000 negative ion tweeterRadio TechnologyKazumasa TakahashiPlasmaTweeter1999Oct5392-93 like a larger room CSE A-3000 negative ion tweeter Radio Technology Kazumasa Takahashi 1999CSE A-3000
MagazineSpund ScopeStereo SoundOkihiko KannoPlasmaTweeter1999131 A-3000
MagazineBuild a Plasma TweeterAudioXpressColin JoyePlasmaTweeter2003Apr34 Iss 4 version of Colin s Project
MagazineCare and Maintenance of DuKane Ionovac TweetersD. SchooPlasmaTweeter2003Dec and Maintenance of DuKane Ionovac Tweeters D. Schoo 2003Oct 2002 original
MagazineDukane Ionovac The History of a Brilliant FailureD. SchooPlasmaTweeter2004Mar Ionovac The History of a Brilliant Failure D. Schoo 2004History of Ionophone key
MagazinePlasma Tweeter Elettronica FlashDiego BaronePlasmaTweeter2004Oct29-34 and history of Ionophone
MagazinePlasma, a New Tweeter Technology Lansche Audio No.8SoftpediaFlorin TibuPlasmaTweeter2008Apr AudioLansche Audio - It's new all over again (2008) key
MagazineDas Licht am Ende des TunnelsHifitestPlasmaTweeter2011 AudioLansche Audio Cubus Review 2011
MagazineLansche Audio 5.1 LoudspeakerStereophileJohn AtkinsonPlasmaTweeter2012Jul AudioLansche Audio 5.1 Review
MagazineEr leuchtet (Lansche No. 3.1)StereoplayHolger BiermannPlasmaTweeter2014Jan58-61 leuchtet (Lansche No. 3.1) Stereoplay Holger Biermann 2014
MagazineThe DuKane Ionovac SpeakerAntique Radio ClassifiedD. SchooPlasmaTweeter2014Jan134-40 background article key
MagazineBack to the Ion ageHi-Fi NewsKeith Howard2017Aug24-29 to the Ion age Hi-Fi News Keith Howard 2017Good history key
MagazineLaunch of Sonarc a labour of loveThe Irish TimesOlive KeoghPlasmaFull2017Jun Plasma Speaker background article
MagazineThe Von Schweikert Research VR-4 LoudspeakersPositive FeedbackStu McCreary, Albert Von SchweikertPlasmaTweeter2020MayIss 109 Institute of TechnologyA plasma speaker Albert termed The Forcefield was built, which used high voltage to break air down into ozone that was then modulated by the signal to produce sound.
PaperLetter from Dr. Higgins (hydrogen flame sound)Journal of natural philosophy, chemistry and the artsWilliam Nicholson18021130 the 1777 discovery by Higgins
PaperOn acoustic oscillations of the air in heated glass tubes and in closed pipes of non-uniform widthAnnalen der Physik und ChemieKarl SondhaussAir1850791-34 acoustic oscillations of the air in heated glass tubes and in closed pipes of non-uniform width Annalen der Physik und Chemie Karl Sondhauss 1850What it says
PaperOn the Influence of Musical Sounds on the Flame of a Jet of Coal GasAmerican Journal of ScienceJohn LeconteFlame1858Jan2nd Series 2362-67 sounds
PaperOn the vibration of the air in a tube open at both endsPhilosophical MagazinePieter L. RijkeAir1859Apr17419-422 the vibration of the air in a tube open at both ends Philosophical Magazine Pieter L. Rijke 1859More flame sounds
PaperThe PyrophonePopular Science MonthlyFlame18757447 flame sounds a name
PaperOn Some Thermal Effects of Electric CurrentsRoyal SocietyWilliam Henry PreeceThermo1880May408-411 thermal wire work
PaperOn the Conversion of Radiant Energy into Sonorous VibrationsRoyal SocietyWilliam Henry PreeceThermo1881Feb506-520 thermal wire work
PaperFrederick Kastner ObituaryNatureFlame1882Jul26304 Kastner Obituary Nature 1882PyrophoneObit
PaperAkustische Erscheinungen am electrischen FlammenbogenAnn. PhysikHermann Theodor Simon1898Vol 300, No 2233-242 flames
PaperThe Reason for the Hissing of the Electric ArcNatureHertha AyrtonArc1899JulNo.1552, Vol 60302-305 investigative physics key
PaperThe hissing of the electric arcJournal of the IEEHertha AyrtonArc1899JunVol 28, Iss 120
PaperSome Experiments on the Direct-Current ArcNatureWilliam DuddellArc1900DecVol. 63, no. 1625182-183
PaperOn Rapid Variations in the Current through the Direct-Current ArcIEEWilliam DuddellArc1901DecVol 30, iss 148232-283
PaperSur les phenomenes de l arc chantantEclairage ElectriqueBlondel, AndreArc1905Vol 4441-58 and 81-104 les phenomenes de l arc chantant Eclairage Electrique Blondel, Andre 1905
PaperSur les phenomenes de l arc chantantJournal of PhysicsBlondel, AndreArc1906Feb77-97
PaperSpeaking Incandescent LampPhysikalische Zeitschrift,K. Ort And J. RidgerArc1912
PaperOn ThermophonesRoyal SocietyPeter De LangeThermo1915239
PaperThe thermophone as a precision source of soundPhysics ReviewH.D.Arnold, I.B.CrandallThermo191710, iss 2222-28
PaperNotes on the Development of a New Type of Hornless Loud SpeakerJournal AIEEChester Rice, Edward KelloggArc, Ion1925Sep982-991 LabsThe testing of a talking arc (and thermophone), discounted and the world used cones and magnets
PaperContribution a la theorie de l arc chantant musicalComptes rendus hebdomadaires des seances de l Academie des sciencesBlondel, AndreArc1926AprVol 82900-903
PaperCellule thermoionique de grande puissance a atmosphere gazeuseComptes RendusS. KleinIon1946Jan1282-1284 thermoionique de grande puissance a atmosphere gazeuse Comptes Rendus S. Klein 1946key
PaperAugmentation du rendement de la cellule thermoionique a grande puissance par superpositionComptes RendusS. KleinIon1951Jul143-145 du rendement de la cellule thermoionique a grande puissance par superposition Comptes Rendus S. Klein 1951
PaperIonic LoudspeakersIRE Transactions on AudioJ. C. AxtellPlasmaTweeter1952JulAU821-27 Loudspeakers IRE Transactions on Audio J. C. Axtell 1952On Klein ionophone
PaperThe Klein-Plessey Ionophone loudspeakerBBC R&DJ.R. ChewPlasma1954Jan-13
PaperUn nouveau transducteur electroacoustique l ionophone AcusticaS. KleinPlasmaTweeter1954Vol 4, No 177-79 description of a new French loudspeaker Societe Audax – also in Proceedings of the First ICA-Congress Electro-Acoustics
PaperHistory of Sound Motion PicturesJournal of the SMPTEEdward w. KelloggIon, Arc1955JunVol 64294 LabsFootnote about Kellogg and Rice in Bell Labs with arcs, thermophones and corona discharge devices 1925
PaperCorona Wind LoudspeakersNatureD. TombsIonFull1955176923
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PaperElectro-Acoustic Coupling in a Plasma Gas PhD ThesisThe Open UniversityYvonne SuttonPlasma2011Sep
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PaperA Comparison Between Dynamic Loudspeakers and Plasma LoudspeakersLulea University of TechnologyAleksandar Jovic2014JunThesis
PaperThe High Fidelity Plasma Speaker APS Division of Plasma Physics, Salisbury UniversityJames McgallPlasma2014OctVol 59, No 15
PaperPlasma SpeakerInternational Journal of Scientific & Engineering ResearchSagar Samant, Mohammed Husein Sabuwala, Bhargav Gokalgandhi, Amit PandeyPlasma2014SepVol 5, Iss 9572-574
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PaperTime-domain and frequency-domain characteristics of audible noise from single corona sourceXuebao Li, X. Cui, Wenzuo MaIon2014
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PaperTime-domain characteristics of the audible noise generated by single corona source under positive voltageIEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical InsulationXuebao Li, X. Cui, Zhenguo WangIon2015Apr
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PaperThermally Driven Sound Source Application of CNT NanofoamsDelft Uni of TechnologyHengqian YiThermophone2015Sept thermophone applications, some history
PaperMembraneless Speaker or Plasma SpeakerBRNO UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGYJosef KovarPlasma2015
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PaperCorona discharge actuator for active sound absorptionEcole Polytechnique Federale de LausanneStanislav Sergeev, Herve LissekIonWoofer/Mid2021Sep
PaperA Carbon-Based Thermoacoustic Speaker With High Vocal Efficiency and Low Power ConsumptionIEEE Sensors JournalCheng Zhao, Jiacheng Zhou, Shunyi Zhang, Qingying Ren, Debo WangThermo2022AugVol 22 Iss 18
PaperTheory and construction of a plasma tweeterSignal Processing and Speech Communication LaboratoryNiklas UrbanPlasmaTweeter2022Jan
PaperPyrolyzed Silk Carbon Fabric-Enabled Wearable Functional Actuators With Heating and Sound-Emitting CapabilitiesIEEE Transactions on Lu-Qi Tao, Guanya Wang, Hao Sun, Congcong Zhu, Zhirong PengThermo2023JanVol 70 Iss 3
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PatentImprovement in pyrophonesFrederic KastnerFlameMusic1873US164458 flame in tubes pipe organ
PatentSpeaking MachineEdisonAir1878US201760 air, nearly massless for ref
PatentArt of and apparatus for generating musicCahillAirMusic1897US580035
PatentImprovements in and connected with means for theDuddellArc1900GB190021629 DC to audible AC using arc
PatentImprovements in or relating to wirelessBlondel, AndreArc1903GB190215527, mic and circuits based on Duddell
PatentImprovements relating to the production of alternatingPoulsenArc1904GB190315599 lamp based telegraph transmitter/receiver
PatentImprovements in and relating toHermanusArcMic1906GB190604585 microphone, piston against electrode
PatentImprovements in wireless telephonyLee De ForestArc1907GB190628125 Duddell and Simon's speaking arc
PatentImproved method of transStilleArcMic1915GB191407202 microphone (reverse of singing arc)
PatentThermic telephoneLynden Robert Aernout BaronThermo1917US1389230 thermophone
PatentThermophone and method of making itBrowne Theodore, Brush CharlesThermo1920US1407726 thermophone variant
PatentThermophoneDe Forest LeeThermo1920US1526778 spiral thermophone in a record groove
PatentImprovements in or relating to microphones and the likeVogt Hans, Josef Engl, Joseph MassollePlasmaMic1921GB157442 Kathodophone patent
PatentThermic TelephonePieter de Lange, Robert Aernout Baron van LyndenThermo1921US1367949 Lange Thermophone patent
PatentThermophoneGray BuddThermo1921US1398687 thermophone
PatentTelephone TransmitterRichard EnglerIon1923US1443620 use of word Ionophone, but not one
PatentMethod of and means for translating sound wavesShrader James EIon1926US1605295 Electric & Mfg Co.Early corona wind with radioactive electrodes for ionisation
PatentElectrical sound-reproducing apparatusDe Forest LeeIon1927US1641664 Phonofilm Corp DeCoiled corona speaker in a parabola key
PatentImprovements relating to elecGeneral ElectricIon1927GB264811 to plane corona discharge key
PatentSystem for converting sound waves into electrical wavesClyde Snook HomerIonMic1928US1690255 Electric Co.Corona microphone
PatentLoud SpeakerL. FleischmannIon1928US1687011 point to plane corona speaker
PatentIntertransposition of sound Lindenblad, RcaIon1928US1685075 to air/ground corona discharge. 189 patents!, Swedish
PatentSound reproducing method and apparatusRamseyPlasma1928US1680694 loaded plasma speaker mod RF key
PatentImprovements relating to elecGeneral ElectricIon1928GB265958 on a disc corona wind. Key
PatentImprovements in or relating to sound-emitting apparatusPintsch JuliusPlasma1929GB299847 or Spark loudspeaker with horn loading
PatentSound-emitting apparatusRubenPlasma1929US1702951 loaded plasma key
PatentMethod of and apparatus for reproducing soundLilienfeldIon1929US1723244 air flow around disc
PatentLoudspeaker arrangementLoeweIon1930GB303175 modulated ion source key
PatentSound reproducerWolffIon1930US1758993 points corona discharge. Ref to above patent 1695075 wrong!
PatentSound-emitting deviceRubenIon1930US1751888 cathode ion speaker
PatentImprovements in or connected with sound reproducing devicesBritish Talking PicturesIon1930GB303828A Forest Lee assignee in UK
PatentSound Producing DeviceDe Forest LeePlasma1931US1806745 gas flow with high voltage
PatentMethod and device for transforming ultrasonic or infrasound wavesKlein S.Plasma1946FR910489 ionophone key
PatentMethod and device for transforming waves of audible, Klein S.Plasma1951GB659796 ionophone
PatentImprovements in or relating toKlein S.Plasma1956GB757358, Also-US2847516, GB757111, FR1041790, BE519086, FR67664E
PatentElectrical TransducerKlein S.Plasma1956US2768246, Also-GB756546, CH317527, DE1095883, FR1041790, US2768246
PatentIonic triode speakerHalus, HolcombPlasma1957US2793324 discharge around a hole
PatentImprovements in and relating toKlein S.Plasma1958GB792312 horn Ionovac
PatentElectrokinetic apparatusTownsend BrownIon1960US2949550 wind speaker copy of Tombs
PatentIonofon-type electroacoustic transducerPlotkin E BPlasma1962SU151896 on the ionophone key
PatentSound ProducerTakis N. PanayIon1962US3022385 but producing ions with heated wire, radiation etc. not voltage
PatentInertialess TransducerWilliam TornPlasma1963US3105124 ionovac
PatentApparatus for producing soundGianni, DucatiPlasma1965US3185778 loaded plasma
PatentKoronaphonWilhelms WalterIon1965DE1462256 random point corona
PatentAppareil sonore electrohydroTownsend BrownIon1966FR1427695 wind copy of Tombs
PatentElectrohydrodynamic sound devicesTownsend BrownIon1967CA771815 wind copy of Tombs
PatentGeneration and transmission Townsend BrownIon1967US3018394 wind copy of Tombs
PatentIonic electroacoustic transducerSeligson, LanierIon1969US3476887 points to blades corona wind (blades all vertical, points only one side)
PatentMethod etc. generating an acoustic outputBabcock Wayne R, Cattaneo Alfredo GPlasma1970GB1199859 Aircraft CorpModulating flame with high voltage, also US3565209 and US3516286
PatentA system for imparting movement to ionizableTownsend BrownIon1972GB1274875 Technology Inc.Corona triode copy of Tombs
PatentKoronaphonWalter WilhelmsPlasma1972DE2115544 for a plasma loudspeaker (modulated supply?)
PatentThoughts on the ? speakerKami KiyoshiIon1975JPS5092755 Gepax Research Institute Co.Horn loaded corona
PatentGuide-band plasma-type loudspeakerDoucet, HenriIon1975FR2246151 wind from radioactive surface
PatentOmnidirectional corona wind loudspeakerKikukawa TakashiPlasma1976JPS5161816 speaker with diaphragm(!) to stop gas
PatentIon LoudspeakerYama Amp Masa ToshiPlasmaTweeter1976JPS5167735 ion loudspeaker with a diaphragm to keep the bad gases in (!)
PatentGrid controlled ionic wind loudKiyoshiPlasma1978JPS53141612 triode, wires, single ended and push pull.
PatentIonic Wind Loudspeaker controlled byKiyoshiPlasma1978JPS53137128 triode, points, single ended and push pull.
PatentIonic Wind LoudspeakerKiyoshiPlasma1978JPS53142218 triode, just single ended, points
PatentIon SpeakerHatake KiyoshiPlasma1979JPS54119914 plasma speaker tube
PatentPlasma LoudspeakerHillPlasma1979GB2023373, glow discharges in parallel. US4219705, JP54143225, JP2918300, FR2422314, DE2913804 key
PatentCorona-loudspeakerKlein S.Plasma1980EP17886 key
PatentCorona-effect loudspeakerKlein S.Plasma1980EP17885
PatentSound emitterKlein S.Plasma1981US4306120
PatentIonic electro-acoustic transducerBondarIon1982EP65911, Also-US4460809, JP58001395, FR2506551, EP0065911 key
PatentTransducer for the transformationKlein S.Plasma1984US4482788 EP0017886, SU1175352, JP55140400, FR245444, ES8100754
PatentProcess and device for converting a periodicBondarIon1984US4460809 pins and plates
PatentCorona effect loudspeakerKlein S.Plasma1984FR2544951
PatentCorona-effect sound emitterKlein S.Plasma1984US4464544
PatentIonic electroacoustic transducerDeraedtIon1987FR2588710 corona wind
PatentElectrokinetic transducing metLeeIon1988WO8807785 wind, Offset wires to thicker bars.
PatentElectrokinetic transducing metLeeIon1988US4789801 wind, Offset wires to thicker aerodynamic bars.
PatentElectronic-Acoustic transducerJiyannkuroodo FuurieeruIon1990JPH02174398 wind dual point
PatentElectroacoustic TransducerFourriereIon1990EP370846, Corona/Glow modulated by plates. JP2174398, FR2638930
PatentTranducteur electroacoustique, et enceinteBayle Pierre, Gibert AlainIon1991FR2685156 point to plane corona?
PatentMethod and apparatus for tranIde, HashimotoArc1993US5220246 glow discharge (arc column), single point to plane. Based on DC TIG welder.
PatentSpeaker utilizing DC corona disMasaakiPlasma1994JPH06327099 to plane corona discharge,+ push pull
PatentMethod and device for arc soundEizoArc1997JP2643009 nozzle, a TIG welder
PatentCorona Discharge LoudspeakerKeith HowardIon1997GB2312590 wind wires with grids either side.
PatentCorona Discharge LoudspeakerAdam ChambersIon2004GB2403372 wind direct amplifier
PatentPlasma acoustic transducer e.g. microphone, uses ionizedSchneider BernhardIon2006DE102005022174 laser create ion - really vague patent
PatentElectroststic Loudspeaker and Igor KrichtapovitchIon2007WO2007127810 Air TechnologiesKronos EFA application (not granted yet, company closed), corona wind key
PatentSound generatorSony CorpPlasma2008JP2010141858's attempt at a plasma tweeter design
PatentHeadphoneAkino YutakaPlasma2008JP2008236235 TechnicaPlasma headphone key
PatentMethod of Acoustic Wave GenerationKrichtafovitch Igor A, Jacob Oharah L, Korolyov Vladislav A, Jewell-Larsen Nels E, Karpov SergeyIon2009US2009022340 Air TechnologiesKronos US version granted
PatentElectricity and sound conversionYao ZongdongPlasma2010CN101778327 speaker controlled by magnetic field, or not the translation is vague
PatentThermoacoustic deviceJIANG KAI-LIThermo2010US2010054504 nanotube thermophone
PatentPlasma loudspeakerZhao Ge, Gao Yifeng, Cao Dong Plasma2011CN202218397 speaker, classic style with two electrodes, a reflector behind
PatentElectroacoustic TransducerAkino YutakaPlasma2011JP2011188037 TechnicaPlasma tweeter on inert gas
PatentPlasma tweeter e.g. teslums tweeter, for e.g. acoustic labBraun AlexanderPlasma2012DE102010026112 speaker on tesla coil
PatentElectric-arc loudspeakerBoris G. VigerPlasma2012RU2496254 tweeter EAL/VA7 of Viger Audio/Plasma Voice
PatentElectro-acoustic transducerAkino HiroshiPlasmaTweeter2013US2013223647 Tweeter with inert gas supply key
PatentControl device for plasma loudspeaker and plasma loudspeaker Lu YulongPlasma2013CN101820573 speaker amp
PatentMicrophoneYu AkinoPlasmaMic2013JP5281428 based microphone
PatentElectroacoustic ConverterChyzhov Maksym Viktorovych, Yun Kostiantyn MoiseiovychIon2014UA105621 AcousticCorona wind, WaveIon
PatentElectroacoustic transducerYu AkinoPlasma2014JP5474614 speaker
PatentElectroacoustic transducerYu AkinoPlasmaMic2015JP5777540 speaker and microphone
PatentPlasma loudspeaker earphoneShi PengPlasma2016CN105763985 headphone
PatentElectron tube ionic loudspeakerZhang ZaifeiPlasma2017CN205902064 plasma speaker valve amplifier
PatentElectroacoustic transducerYu AkinoPlasma2017JP6099143 speaker
PatentMicrowave plasma loudspeakerFu WenjiePlasma2018CN107948895 generated plasma
PatentImproved plasma loudspeakerHu ZhenqiangPlasma2019CN110430515 arrangement of plasmas
PatentElectroacoustic transducer having controlled ion generationChyzhov Maksym ViktorovichIonMid/Tweeter2019US9445202 AcousticCorona wind, WaveIon key
PatentAxial electric field electroacoustic transducer Chyzhov Maksym ViktorovichIonMid/Tweeter2019WO2019069289 AcousticCorona wind, WaveIon
PatentElectronic effects device and method Ilja Krumins, Martins Melkis, Kristaps KalvaPlasma2019WO2019135196 in a gas discharge tube
PatentSystem and Method for Acoustic to Electronic TransductionJohan CarlssonPlasmaMic2020US201862627839 microphone for structural listening
PatentPlasma speakerGilliganPlasmaFull2020EP3513576 InnovationsMultiple small plasma tweeters to create a full-range plasma Sonarc
PatentTunable electrostatic ion and fluid flow generator and electroacoustic transducerSubrahmanyam DesarajuIon2022US11273465 wind speaker, detailed but nothing new key
PatentPlasma Based Noise Reduction SystemSergeev Stanislav, Lissek Herve,Volery MaximeIon2023EP4116967 Wind Speaker used for Noise Reduction
PicturesKathodofon (kathodophone)Radio MuseumPlasmaMic1929 (kathodophone) pictures
PicturesIon plasma Corona Wind LoudspeakerDIY Audio2012 nice pics
PicturesB&W P2HCharlieStudioPlasmaTweeter2021 & WilkinsFull pics of the B&W P2H with Fane 601 Ionophone
TheoreticalCorona Wind LoudspeakerDr. David M.TombsIonFull1955 Wind Loudspeaker Dr. David M.Tombs 1955UK(later worked for Hoover!)Prototypes only, Gerald Shirley (Televex Co.) tried to develop it. Key
TheoreticalIonophonic headphoneGregor AntesPlasmaFull1964 headphones with Guido Melliger.
TheoreticalSTL IonophoneFransson F.Plasma1965 Ionophone Fransson F. 1965KTH Computer ScienceUsed for acoustic measurement
TheoreticalFlame Loudspeaker, Talking FlameDr. A. G. CattaneoFlame1968 Technology Center, UTCElectrodes in a welding torch flame modulating it Wayne Babcock,K. L. Baker
TheoreticalForce-field SpeakerJohn Gordon IversonIonFull1973 Speaker John Gordon Iverson 1973USElectro Research then Electron KineticsBased on Tombs' corona wind key
TheoreticalThe ForceFieldCalifornia Institute of TechnologyAlbert Von SchweikertPlasmaTweeter1976 Acoustical EngineeringDeveloped under Dr. Richard Heyser, later developed a non-plasma speaker called forcefield too
TheoreticalIonophoneOstroumov, G AIon1979 Ostroumov, G A 1979RURussian prof, ring arrangement
TheoreticalIon Cloud PanelNelson PassIonFull1980 Cloud Panel Nelson Pass 1980USThreshold Audio Inc.Prototype corona wind wire based panel key
TheoreticalPush pull corona prototypeAlain DeraedtIon1987 pull corona prototype Alain Deraedt 1987FRPatent FR2588710, Science&Vie High Tech Article Pascal Freulon key
TheoreticalToltequeJean-Claude FourrierePlasmaTweeter1992 (Acieries du Haut Languedoc)Demoed at WCES 1992 with plasma tweeter. Tolteques sold were ESL. Ran the Plasmasonic Company, Audio reference
TheoreticalSDP 001CredoPlasmaTweeter1996 001 Credo 1996Credo Audio AGDemoed at Ramada by Townshend Audio, a late Ionophone clone Vinzenz von Tscharner
TheoreticalEFA LoudspeakerIgor A. Krichtafovitch, Et.AlIonFull2008 Air TechnologiesA classic corona wind design detailed, Company now closed
TheoreticalWaveionMaxim Chizhov, Iskender DzhanagayevIonMid/Tweeter2014, Copra AcousticDemoed at CES
TheoreticalSonarcPaul GilliganPlasmaFull2016 InnovationsMultiple small plasmas to create a full range plasma speaker Sorcha O'Brien
TheoreticalIonomax (Lonomax)Jianxing CaiPlasmaFull2017 (not funded), exists only as CGI renders of desktop stereo plasma
VideoAM Tower de-energizingYoutubeR.F. BurnsArc2014 arc discharge speaker created as side effect
VideoInfoComm 2016 Waveion Intros New Audio TechnlogyYoutubeIonMid/Tweeter2016 Waveion demo
Video2D Animation waveionYoutubeIonMid/Tweeter2016 promo animation
VideoViger AudioAparatVigerPlasma2019 Audio, Plasma VoiceViger Audio video key
VideoWhat is a plasma tweeterYoutubePaul McgowanPlasmaTweeter2019 AudioWhat is a plasma tweeter
VideoNelson Pass interviewYoutubeSteve GuttenbergIonFull2019 Pass Youtube interview key
VideoUnderstanding Electric DischargesYoutubePlasma2022 the patternExcellent explanation of plasma discharges from See the Pattern
VideoYouTube videos for plasmaspeaker.deYoutubeUlrich HaumannPlasmaTweeter2022 videos for (above) with great detail
VideoThe Hill Plasmatronic demoYoutubeTony SalsichPlasmaMid/Tweeter2023 Hill Plasmatronic being demonstrated key
VideoThe Plasmatronic Hill Type 1 Plasma TweeterYoutubeAlan Hill, Tony Silsich, Tom MartinPlasmaTweeter2023 Absolute SoundDecent long video on the Hill Plasmatronic 2023 demo
VideoA simplified model for a plasma in electric and magnetic fieldsYoutubeNils BerglundPlasma2023 visualisation of electrons and ions in a plasma
VideoHigh-voltage physics - with David RickettsYoutubeThe Royal Institution2023 background to plasma physics
VideoNon-hifi use of plasmaYoutubeFranzoliPlasmaMusic2023 ElectronicsA video channel which shows the non-hifi use of plasma well
Web ArticleWikipedia DE - Ionophonic HeadphoneGregor AntesPlasmaFull1964 on Gregor Antes (for dates)
Web ArticleElectrovoice Ionovac loudspeakerScience Museum GroupWest, RPlasmaTweeter1981 (electrovoice)Where a real Ionovac is located
Web ArticleWelcome to the Plasma Tweeter ZoneColin JoyePlasmaTweeter2001 early site with a Magnat clone project (page Plasma Tweeters II good too)
Web ArticleWelcome to the Second Plasma Tweeter ZoneColin JoyePlasmaTweeter2002 plasma tweeter project page from Colin
Web ArticleThe Plasma Mid-Tweeter ProjectColin JoyePlasmaMid/Tweeter2002 tiny page with a hint of making a midrange plasma
Web ArticleMassless SpeakersEverything22000 brief general and inaccurate info page
Web ArticleThis page contains some plasma loudspeaker historyJay PhilippbarPlasmaTweeter2001 dead site with some nice old info
Web ArticleThe Art of Speaker DesignNutshell HifiLynn Olson2002 info on plasma speakers at the bottom
Web ArticlePlasma SpeakerAndrew ParsonsPlasmaTweeter2002 early project page
Web ArticleFull History and info on IonovacsRoger RussellPlasmaTweeter2004 History and info on Ionovacs key
Web ArticleBerchet OnlineBerchetIon2004 early site with project corona wind photos
Web ArticlePlasma Tweeter HardcoreaudioSebastian MainkaPlasmaTweeter2004 early project page
Web ArticleArcophonePerth ArtifactoryPlasmaMusic2010 interesting version of plasma jacobs ladders (polyplasmic!)
Web ArticleMagnat Plasma TechnologyColin JoyePlasmaTweeter2011 page on a diy Magnat clone
Web ArticleVR-100XS to debut next month! (forcefield)Audio CircleAlbert Von SchweikertPlasmaTweeter2012 TechIn his own words - As I had built a plasma speaker system at the lab at Cal Tech 36 years ago
Web ArticleExcelPhysics KickstarterKickstarter2014 Kickstarter (2014, main site now gone)
Web ArticleAudio Reference Le Son AuthentiquefrenchvintagehifiJean-Claude FourrierePlasmaTweeter2015 ReferenceLast para and pic - AHL Tolteque and Plasmasonic
Web ArticleVaughn Plasma II New-Plasma TweeterAudiogonPlasmaTweeter2016 LoudspeakersVaughn Plasma II review
Web ArticleThe Once and Future TweeterBill Leebens2016 AudioA nice overview article
Web ArticleSonarc - The world's first full audio frequency range, massless speakerCordisPaul GilliganPlasmaFull2018 InnovationsGrant for Sonarc with their objectives
Web ArticlePlasma Singing Foggy Perspectives of IonophonesSudonullPlasmaTweeter2019 nice plasma article
Web ArticleSound Emitter Based on the Ionophone PrincipleN.N. Bochkarev, S.M. GavrilenkoPlasmaTweeter2019 Russian ionophone with circuit and varied claims
Web ArticleLo IonophoneDiego BaronePlasmaTweeter2021 DIY Version of Klein Ionophone
Web ArticlePlasma speakerWikipedia2023 s main section, varies in accuracy
WebsitePlasma Tweeter site (old Plasma Speaker/Plasmaton)plasmatweeter.deUlrich HaumannPlasmaTweeter2010 (but different) version of
WebsiteA Solid-State, FET-Based Ion TweeterColin Joye, Rob Alejnikov, Mark BlattnerPlasmaTweeter2002 old site but good project information
WebsiteIonovac.comionovac.comJack Podplesky, Daniel SchooPlasmaTweeter2013 very good but dead site, link to the wayback machine key
WebsitePlasmatonplasmaspeaker.deUlrich HaumannPlasmaTweeter2022 Speaker top site key

The Categories are:
Commercial - a reference to successful designs you could buy
Early History - a reference to the earliest work
Forum - a web forum
Theoretical - a reference to a notable design that was never sold
Website - a complete site related to massless designs
Web article - a web based magazine article

The Type column contains these types:
Plasma - glow (or brush) discharge plasma based, such as an Ionophone
Arc - arc discharge plasma based, such as a singing arc
Ion - ion wind based, such as an ion cloud or corona
Flame - flame based, such as a pyrophone
Thermo - thermodynamic based, such as a thermophone

The Range column contains these ranges:
Tweeter - High human range frequencies, such as treble
Mid - mid human range frequencies, such as voice
Woofer - low human range frequencies, such as bass
Full - wide human range frequencies, covering the whole human hearing range
Mic - a sound to electricity transducer, not a speaker
Music - the device produces musical sounds rather than accurate sound reproduction


Info about plasma speaker and plasma speakers

and ionophone , ionic loudspeakers

with ion cloud and ionophone

and ionic wind speakers aand plasma speaker
and more plasma speaker and ion tweeter

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