References - The Archive

All the references to plasma speaker and related massless articles in one place, over 600!

Search is your friend!

Click the green plus to show lots more info and links.

CategoryTitle/ModelPublication/PublisherCompanyAuthor/DesignerTypeYearRangeMonthVolumePagePatent No.WebpageCountryNotes
CommercialKathodophoneLorenz for Tri-Ergon (1923)Hans Vogt, Josef Engl, Joseph MassolleIon1918Mic Kathodofon - used for earliest film sound recording 1922, 500V 0.25mm gap
CommercialIonophoneAudaxSiegfried KleinPlasma1952Tweeter first licensed Klein Ionophone
CommercialIonophone Type D15PlesseySiegfried KleinPlasma1954Tweeter Type D15 Siegfried Klein 1954UKA licensed Klein Ionophone
CommercialIonophon LautsprecherTelefunken Deutschland TFKSiegfried KleinPlasma1955Tweeter licensed Klein Ionophone
CommercialIonophoneA.E.G.Siegfried KleinPlasma1955Tweeter Siegfried Klein 1955SEA licensed Klein Ionophone
CommercialIonovacDukane, IonavacSiegfried Klein, William TornPlasma1957Tweeter,10 - 60, Ionavac division,Ionofone (reworked Klein Ionophone)
CommercialIonovac T-3500Electro-Voice (electrovoice)Siegfried KleinPlasma1958Tweeter licensed Dukane Ionovac clone
CommercialIonofane, IonofoneFane AcousticsFaulkus, KleinPlasma1965Tweeter, Ionofone Faulkus, Klein 1965UKA licensed Ionovac clone Fane 601, used in BBC monitor, B&W P2H and Sony
CommercialP2, P2HBowers & Wilkins, B&WPlasma1967Tweeter a Fane ACWThis 601 tweeter, H higher power version, (release date from B&W facebook)
CommercialTecnac IonofoneThorolf Hartung Technische AkustikSiegfried KleinPlasma1974Tweeter (bad) Klein Ionovac clone
CommercialModel-1A, ReferencePhonogenNorbert SchaferPlasma1975Tweeter speaker, tweeter was (audiotrade) Braun Ionovac/Corona in Reference, later 1A used Acapella
CommercialHill Type-1 Plasma Speaker SystemPlasmatronics Inc.Dr. Alan Hill, With Tony SalsichPlasma1978Tweeter known, helium tank, handful made Type 1,Model 1-100-A or 1A key
CommercialCorona Plasma TweeterCorona Acoustic GmbHOtto BraunPlasma1978Tweeter 1977-99, sold to Lansch Audio. Also designed Acapella Ion TW-1
CommercialRealonReal Onkyo Co. Ltd.Mr HataPlasma1978Tweeter late Ionofane (Klein), Refurb Mk3 listed on Amazon Japan 2014 Mk 1,2,3 ,TS-5A, PS-2000
CommercialPlasma Type Transpuls MP-01, MP-02, 001, 100MagnatSiegfried KleinPlasma1979Tweeter used in the Transpuls MP-X-101, MP-X-066, MP-X-088. Transpulsar sometimes used. key
CommercialDVL DigiplasmaIMLPlasma1981Tweeter tweeter, unique, Swiss, Award winner
CommercialIonovacAmerican Audio Components Inc.Siegfried KleinPlasma1981Tweeter97 manufacturer or seller of the Ionovac in the US
CommercialPlasmasonic 1Audio ReferenceHenri Bondar, Jean-Claude FourriereIon1984Full, few hundred made - $2000 1 key
CommercialIon TW-1Acapella (ATR)Plasma1998Tweeter - Was 8,500 ACWtable euro on its own, now only part of full system TW-1, TW-1S key
CommercialCorona Plasma TweeterLansche Audio, Corona Acoustic GmbHRudiger Lansche, Otto BraunPlasma1998Tweeter - Took over Corona Acoustic's designs
CommercialA-3000CSE Inc.Ionish1999Tweeter ioniser on an AMT tweeter, 15kHz+ super tweeter -not really ion or plasma but here as ref
CommercialPlasmasonicEastern Voltage ResearchPlasma2007Mid/Tweeter - tesla coil based design for shows and demos (not the headphones)
CommercialVA, Arc One, EALViger Audio, Plasma VoiceBoris G. VigerPlasma2012Tweeter state plasma tweeters VA-5pro,VA6, VA7
CommercialARC Plasma SpeakerExcelPhyicsMatt Chapman, David StoyanovPlasma2014Tweeter funded DIY kit plasma speaker, no longer in business (out 2016)
CommercialPlasma Signature, IIVaugn LoudspeakersJim JordanPlasma2016Tweeter - Recreated Ionovac in the Plasma II
Early HistoryCorona discharge Otto Von GuerickeIon1672 observation of a corona discharge on pointed conductors
Early HistoryElectric windFrancis HauksbeeIon1709 observation of the electric wind
Early HistoryElectric vapour, Electric WindIsaac NewtonIon1717 and 3rd edition of Opticks notes the electric vapour
Early HistoryBrushes of lightJean Antoine NolletIon1746 discharge observations
Early HistoryElectrical fireBenjamin FranklinIon1747 fire observations ACWis to Peter Collinson
Early HistoryThe electric flyBenjamin WilsonIon1750 resembling wind, proven not to exist in vacuum
Early HistoryThe cool windEbenezer KinnersleyIon1752 the fire discharges blow on your hand
Early HistoryNot in a vacuumTiberius CavalloIon1777 proving the wind does not exist in vacuum
Early HistorySound of flame in a tube, Singing flameDr Byron HigginsFlame1777 hydrogen flame in a metal pipe
Early HistoryElectric windMichael FaradayIon1838 wind observations
Early HistorySondhauss TubeCarl SondhaussFlame1850 end glass tube flame resonator
Early HistoryGas light responseJohn LeconteFlame1858 light response John Leconte 1858USObserved gas lights response to music
Early HistoryRijke TubePieter RijkeFlame1859 ended glass tube flame resonator
Early HistorySinging FlameJohn TyndallFlame1867 Institution demonstrations Faraday, Wheatstone
Early HistoryViewing electric windAugust ToeplerIon1868 schleiren optics ACWcopyright and used them to view electric wind
Early HistoryPyrophoneFrederic Eugene KastnerFlame1869 known as burning harmonica or chemical harmonica
Early HistoryAerophoneThomas EdisonAir1878 for ref, not 100% massless but an early compressed air attempt
Early HistorySinging flame or talking arcLee De ForestArc1897 earliest plasma speaker? Talking arc speaking flame diagram in diary.
Early HistorySinging electric arcHermann Theodor SimonArc1898Music of the earliest work on arcs and sound, University of Gottingen
Early HistoryAuxetophoneShort & Parsons, VictorAir1898Music massless compressed air amplifier Horace Short, Charles Parsons
Early HistorySinging ArcWilliam Du Bois DuddellArc1899 based on carbon arc lamps, also the musical arc
Early HistoryPoulsen ArcValdemar PoulsenArc1903 radio transmitter based on Duddell's work Also spelt Poulson
Early HistoryTelharmoniumThaddeus CahillArc1906Music arcs as electrical oscillators based on Duddell's work
Early HistorySinging ArcUniversidad de La PlataEmil BoseArc1911March demo close to Simon s design using Max Kohl s equipment, post Duddell, died in May
Early HistoryFlamephoneScientific and Projections Ltd.John George Aulsebrook KitchenFlame1922Full Flame directly modulated by a gramophone, not quite massless-nearly
ForumElectrostatic SubwooferGoogle GroupsRon FolkIon1998Full recent anecdotes on the corona wind speaker of Tombs, lots on Gerald Shirley and his son Larry
ForumIf interested in ion drivers, found more infoAudio AsylumBondarIon2004Full Plasmasonic extra ACWAdam details
ForumPlasmaSonic a headphone that puts even the OrpheusAudio AsylumBondarIon2004Full Plasmasonic extra details
ForumDr. Hills Patent discussionAudio AsylumcfbPlasma2004Tweeter on the Plasmatronics and Jay Philippbar
ForumCrossover points and music power distributiondiyAudioPrunePlasma2004Tweeter on crossover point of plasma tweeters mainly Plasmatronics
ForumForum with Ionovac detailsKlipschDukane IonovacPlasma2006Tweeter with Ionovac details 2006
ForumDuKane Ionovac InformationKlipschJack PodpleskyPlasma2006Tweeter Ionovac and t3500 details
ForumHill PlasmatronicsGoogle GroupsJohn MayberryPlasma2007Tweeter dedicated to Hill Plasmatronics
Forumwhat are the thoughts of stand alone super tweeterAudiogonBowers & WilkinsForevermusic414Plasma2008Tweeter some discussion of the B&W P2H and integrating plasma tweeters
ForumThe Hub No moving parts No problemAudiogon2009 article/forum focused on Klein
ForumIonophonesHead-fiMeniskPlasma2009 between corona and plasma speakers, no to guide them
ForumNew fullrange corona speakerdiyAudiojenoIon2009FullMarch info and confusion on a number of corona speakers, Pass, Shirley, Kronos
ForumHIGH END 2009 - MunchenEuphonia-audioforumIMLPlasma2009TweeterMay about purchasing IML Digiplasma
ForumPlasma Speaker, Plasma Chamber4hv.orgGhostNullPlasma/Ion2010Tweeter/FullSep discussion on plasma and corona, Shirley/Tombs link
ForumWhat is the most highly resolving speaker you have ever heardWhats Best ForumMobiusmanIon2012Full about John Iverson Force Field Speaker
ForumDisappeared MarksHomecinema-frGrand-FloydIon2012FullMar on the Plasmasonic, Tolteques and Fourriere
ForumA Student's Attempt at the Plasmasonic HeadphonesHead-fi.orgAkirozIon2012FullJul plasmasonic headphone project
ForumA Student's Attempt at the Plasmasonic HeadphonesdiyAudiob1o2r3i4s5Ion2012FullAug plasmasonic headphone project (be careful they are deadly)
ForumUNUSUAL speaker designsAudiokarma2013 odd speakers ACWChambers
ForumTrue SubbassAudio HeritagePhonogenGibberPlasma2013Tweeter of a Phonogen Model 1A and Reference
ForumDid Sony make great speakers?theartofsound.netSony CorpPlasma2013TweeterMay about the Sony badged B&W P2H Ionofane
ForumForum on the Lansche Corona tweeterSteve Hoffman forumLansche AudioPlasma2014Tweeter the Lansche Corona tweeter
ForumUn systeme classiqueMelaudia.netGrand FloydIon2015FullFeb on the Plasmasonic, Tolteques and Fourriere
ForumFlamephoneGrammophon-platten.deSeitenbetreiberFlame2015FullJul lot of pictures and info on the Flamephone, not quite massless
ForumSuper tweeter time alignmentStereonetPlasma2016TweeterOct rare constructive discussion around Magnat tweeters
ForumThe Flamephone. Has anyone ever seen one of these on video?RedditatlinernotesFlame2018Full on the Flamephone
ForumNew for of plasma speakerLaser Pointer ForumsWizardGPlasma2018Mar discussion on arstechinca article with typical half informed replies
ForumA forum with some bits of info in the threadHifi Sentralen2019 forum with some bits of info in the thread
ForumIonic SpeakersThe Audio Circuit2019 brief bits of info (dead site, archive link)
ForumDebunking the Myth that a Lighter DiaphragmAudio Science Review2021 in depth discussion about mass in speakers
ForumGas Powered Antique TurntablePink fish mediarichardgFlame2021FullFeb Flamephone on Antiques Road Show perhaps
ForumForum site with various massless speaker discussionsDIYAudio2023 great forum site with various massless speaker discussions
ForumListening to Plasma TweetersForum BleuJef ParisPlasma2023 discussion including Ionophone and Plasmasonic
MagazineSinging FlameScientific AmericanMontenatFlame1877AprVol 3 No 671061 demo of the singing flame - metal tube with hot charcoal, Paris
MagazineMusic in FlameDaily MailArc1901JanJan 12 in Flame Daily Mail 1901Interview with Prof. Ayrton about Duddell speaking arc
MagazineMusic in FlamesOmeo Standard and Mining GazetteArc1901MarMar 154 based on Daily Mail article on Duddell speaking arc
MagazineMusic in Electric ArcsNew York TimesV.J.Y.Arc1901Apr287 public article on sound from arcs, Duddell
MagazineComplete Apparatus for Experiments with the Speaking Arc LampPhysical ApparatusMax Kohl A. G. ChemnitzMax KohlArc1911No. 50 Vol II and III1057-1058 your own speaking or singing arc
MagazineA Speaking Incandescent LampScientific AmericanThermo1912Dec107527 that a lamp can make sound (thermal)
MagazineThe De Lange Thermal TelephoneThe Electrical ExperimenterThermo1915Mar202-204 wire amplified ACW2024 by diaphragm
MagazineThe How and Why of Radio ApparatusThe Electrical ExperimenterH. Winfield SecorThermo1918Jul212 the De Lange thermal phone
MagazineThe FlamephoneThe Sound WaveAdvertFlame1922May307 gramophone that modulates a flame with air, massless?
MagazineAn Unique Instrument - The FlamephoneThe Talking Machine WorldScientific and Projections Ltd.W. Lionel SturdyFlame1922FullJun183-184 Flamephone purifies music as it plays
MagazineThe IonophoneWireless World1922Octxxxiii use of word Ionophone, but not one
MagazineThe Glow Discharge MicrophoneThe Wireless World and Radio ReviewWestinghouse Electric & Mfg Co.Phillips ThomasPlasma1923MicMar834 glow discharge work with photo
MagazineThe Flame-PhoneThe GramophoneScientific and Projections Ltd.C.R.S.Flame1923FullOct89 full review of the not quite massless Flamephone gramophone
MagazineWireless WavesCondenserIon1923MicSep the kathodophone
MagazineListening in for Insect VoicesPopular SciencePhillips ThomasPlasma1924MicApr36 extra detail on the glow discharge microphone
MagazineMicrophones Without DiaphragmsThe Wireless World and Radio ReviewPhillips Thomas, Vogt, Engl, MassolleIon1924MicAug559-560 the kathodophone and glow discharge microphones, good pictures
MagazineCellule thermoionique de grande puissance a atmosphere gazeuse et ions positifsL'Onde ElectriqueS. KleinPlasma1946TweeterOct235367-373 first featured article on the Ionophone, also a microphone
MagazineWill the ionophone revolutionise loudspeaker techniquesDas ElektronWienPlasma1951Tweeter310 only
MagazineIonophone CircuitryRadio ElectronicsE. Aisberg, M. BonhommePlasma1951TweeterDec33 Ionophone article
MagazineL IonodyneToute La RadioM. BonhommePlasma1951TweeterNov160291 Ionophone article ACWand
MagazineIonophoneRadio ElectronicsE. Aisberg, M. BonhommePlasma1951TweeterNov44-45 Ionophone article key
MagazineLes bases physiques du haut-parleur et du microphone ioniquesLa TSF Pour TousS. KleinIon1951MicOctNo.276340-342 of the Ionophone as a microphone
MagazineIonophoneToute La RadioM. BonhommePlasma1951TweeterOct159251 Ionophone article
MagazineIonophoneLa TSF Pour TousS. KleinPlasma1951TweeterSep251278 article from Klein
MagazineM. Siegfried Klein l inventeur de l ionophone recoit le grand prix de l inventionLe MondeS. KleinPlasma1952TweeterDec award winner
MagazineLoudspeaker Without DiaphragmWireless WorldF.L.D.Plasma1952TweeterJan232 Klein ionophone
MagazineThe IonophoneL'Onde ElectriqueS. KleinPlasma1952TweeterJul304314-320 common reference article, nice and in depth key
MagazineRadio BusinessRadio ElectronicsPlasma1952TweeterMar18 Institute of Inventive Research early Ionophone patent
MagazineThe Ion SpeakerFunkschauDr. W. BurckPlasma1952TweeterMay10189 Kleins Ionophone without mentioning him Andre Dewald & Sohn AG
MagazineA New Speaker PrincipleSaturday Review of LiteratureEdgar VillchurPlasma1952TweeterSepVol 3560-61 complete opinion article on the Ionophone, Audax first release info, key (original article)
MagazineThe reproduction of soundPhysics TodayEdgar VillchurPlasma1952TweeterSep510-13 to first ACWI article
MagazineThe Ionophone is Making ProgressFunkschauAndre Dewald & Sohn AGPlasma1952Mid/TweeterDec24438 another Ionophone by Andre Dewald & Sohn AG, demo at Swiss radio exhibition
MagazineQui na jamais entendu un haut-parleur ionique Audax 1952TSF et TVPlasma1952TweeterPoss NovPoss No. 289 na jamais entendu un haut-parleur ionique Audax 1952 TSF et TV 1952FRFirst review of Audax Ionophone
MagazineInteration dans l air de deux Ultra-sonsToute La RadioS. KleinPlasma1953TweeterNov352-354 two ionophones at ultrasound to create interference waves
MagazineWanted:- Inertialess SpeakersRadio ElectronicsHugo Gernsback1953Oct33 piece key
MagazineSpace SoundRadio ElectronicsPlasma1954TweeterAug69 Ionophone early operation details
MagazineThe Ionophone DemonstratedWireless WorldA. E. FalkusPlasma1954TweeterJan34 early demo to the IEE
MagazineIndustry PeopleAudioPlesseyPlasma1954TweeterJun63 of Klein and introduction to America of Ionophone
MagazineGermany Tests IonophonPopular ElectronicsTelefunken Deutschland TFKPlasma1955TweeterNov39 speaker clone but with different design
MagazineMassless Loudspeaker Developed by TelefunkenTele-Tech and Electronic IndustriesPlasma1955TweeterNov18 Ionophone
MagazineDevelopments in Sound Reproduction - New EquipmentWireless WorldPlesseyPlasma1956TweeterJul335 Ionophone ACWprefer
MagazineLondon Letter - Britains First Audio ShowAudioPlesseyRichard ArbibPlasma1956TweeterJun2-6 of Plessey Ionophone with pic (page 4 and 6 of article)
MagazineMarch MeetingsWireless WorldD. TombsIon1956FullMar147 Meetings Wireless World D. Tombs 195622nd Physical Society symposium on Loudspeakers Dr. D.M. Tombs at 3.0 at the Royal Institute of British Architects
MagazineThe Corona LoudspeakerRadio and Television NewsTelevex Co.G. ShirleyIon1956FullOct57,124,127 Dr. D.M. Tombs corona key
MagazineIonovac Super-Sonic SpeakerElectronic IndustriesPlasma1957TweeterApr77,151 improvements of Ionovac over Ionophone
MagazineSanity FairHigh Fidelity MagazinePlesseyPlasma1957TweeterJul84 super tweeter to end all super-tweeters
MagazineLoudspeakers of the FutureRadio ElectronicsTelevex Co.G. ShirleyIon1957FullNov44-46 Dr. D.M. Tombs corona and Ionophone key
MagazineAll About AudioRadio NewsPlasma1957TweeterOct106 can be little doubt that a really perfect loudspeaker would be massless.
MagazineApplications of Corona EffectsElectronicsD. TombsIon1957Full30198 of Corona Effects Electronics D. Tombs 1957A decent extra article from Tombs key
MagazineAudio Fair GuideHi-Fi NewsPlesseyPlasma1957Tweeter464 News Audio Fair exhibitors with Plessey Ionophone
MagazineIonophone articleRadio und FernsehenIon1958May7296-298 article Radio und Fernsehen 1958Another general Ionophone article ACWyou
MagazineIonized Air Cloud for Super Hi-FiRadio-TV ExperimenterJerry SkellyPlasma1958Tweeter551134-136 Ionophone to Ionovac with detail
MagazineIonovac Speaker: Still a Brilliant FailureConsumer Reports magazinePlasma1959TweeterMay220 opinion piece key
MagazineSound Producing Unit with IonophoneRadio (Russia)E. Plotkin, B. Karateev ,V. PrutzPlasma1959Tweeter1218 Producing Unit with Ionophone Radio (Russia) E. Plotkin, B. Karateev ,V. Prutz 1959Good article based on Ionophone but Russian
MagazineDischarge Loudspeaker Kills MiceThe New Scientist1960Jan100 Loudspeaker Kills Mice The New Scientist 1960Its not a great title
MagazineThe Driverless Tweeter from ParisHigh FidelityNorman EisenbergPlasma1961TweeterJan46 mention of the Ionovac on show
MagazineDuKane Ionovac Speaker ReviewHigh FidelityPlasma1961TweeterMar50 review of the Ionovac key
MagazineIntroducing the IonovacPopular ElectronicsDukanePlasma1961TweeterMayCover, 56 Ionovac review
MagazineLo IonovacRadioramaPlasma1962TweeterJan42-44 review
MagazineUnderstanding Radio The Electrostatic...IonophoneRadio ConstructorW.G.MorleyPlasma1964TweeterNov241 description of Ionophone function
MagazineThe IonophonePractical WirelessA. E. FalkusPlasma1965TweeterApr1141-1143, 1194 much later ACWdidnt from the man who first demonstrated the Ionophone to the IEE
MagazineInternational Audio Festival and FairWireless WorldPlasma1965TweeterJun291-292 of Ionophone, Ionofane and Ionovac and schematic
MagazineHow the Ionophone works Hi-Fi NewsPlasma1965TweeterMay the Ionophone works Hi-Fi News 1965Good Ionophone description key
MagazineIonoFane 601 Ionic Treble Unit & 603 Loudspeaker Hi-Fi NewsPlasma1966TweeterApr 601 Ionic Treble Unit & 603 Loudspeaker Hi-Fi News 1966Ionofane Review
MagazineFane ionoFane Model 603 LoudspeakerThe GramophonePlasma1966TweeterMay ionoFane Model 603 Loudspeaker The Gramophone 1966Ionofane Review
MagazineWhatever Happened to those Revolutionary Loudspeaker Designs?Stereo ReviewGeorge L. Augspurger1967Aug49 piece key
MagazineAudio Etc. - Ion TweeterAudioEdward Tatnall CanbyPlasma1967TweeterSep16-21 full review of the Ionofane
MagazineFlame Amplification and a better HiFi LoudspeakerPopular ElectronicsJames JosephFlame1968May47-53 A. G. Cattaneo
MagazineGRAMThe Catgut Acoustical Society NewsletterPlasma1972Nov5 STL Ionophone being of practical use by GRAM
MagazineImproving the High-End Sound of Your Loudspeaker SystemBoston Audio SocietyRobert GrahamPlasma1976Jan29-35 large article about upgrading with an Ionofane (Ionovac)
MagazineThe Force Field Loud-speakerAudio ForumElectro ResearchJohn IversonIon1977FullIssue 1 Force Field Loud-speaker Audio Forum John Iverson 1977Some refs say Electra Research which is wrong
MagazineLe tweeter ionique RealonAudiophileOnkyoJean HiragaPlasma1978TweeterAprNo.49-17 on the Onkyo Realon speaker, Ionophone based key
MagazineTumour Eradication by RFWireless WorldJ. A. CarderPlasma1978TweeterFeb53 from a developer of Plessey Ionophone
MagazineAmerican AudioWireless WorldJack Dinsdale and George TillettPlasma1978TweeterOct85,86 Plasmatronics at ACWjust 1978 CES
MagazineHill Plasmatronics LoudspeakerInternational Audio ReviewJ. Peter MoncrieffPlasma1978Mid/Tweeter3130-135 decent Hill Plasmatronics review
MagazineTest Phonogen Lautsprecher 1AAudio (but not Audio)Plasma1979TweeterJan120 of Phonogen (with ion tweeter)
MagazineConeless Speaker uses plasma driver (the Hill Plasmatronics)Popular ScienceJohn FreePlasma1979Mid/TweeterJun Speaker uses plasma driver (the Hill Plasmatronics) Popular Science John Free 1979Another Hill Plasmatronics review
MagazineHill Plasmatronics Type 1 loudspeakerStereophileJ. Gordon HoltPlasma1980Mid/TweeterApr web version of 1980 Plasmatronics article key
MagazineAlternative Speaker TechnologiesAudioGary Stock1980Aug6432-37 piece
MagazineLe tweeter absolut? Le transducteur ionique Klein-MagnatL'AudiophileGerard ChretienPlasma1980TweeterDec7-13 late Ionophone article
MagazineThe Plasmatronics speaker systemThe Absolute SoundPlasma1980Mid/TweeterSep5,No19276 Plasmatronics speaker system The Absolute Sound 1980Plasmatronics review
MagazineIt was the perfect high end productWall Street JournalNelson Pass1980Front was the perfect high end product Wall Street Journal Nelson Pass 1980Public news on Nelson Pass Ion Cloud
MagazineThe Ionic ManStereophileIon1980Full6,No. 1Cover, 2, Pass key
MagazineHigh Fidelity NewsHigh FidelityPeter DobbinPlasma1981TweeterAug13 Magnat was sold in America by Dahlquist
MagazineReport MagnatstereoplayPlasma1981TweeterAug30 of Magnat MP-01 tweeter
MagazinePlasmalautsprecher - Wandlersystem der Zukunft?HiFi ExclusivPlasma1981Nov IML tweeter ACWcopy key
MagazineMasterplay-Preis fur REVOX BTIOStuder Revox PrintMarcel SiegenthalerPlasma1981TweeterNov HiFi Prominence November 23rd in Zircher Nova Park the awards hung the Swiss HiFi Prize IML digiplasma tweeter
MagazineDie FeuertaufeStereoplayJoachim ReinertPlasma1981TweeterNov5,60-62,64 Digiplasma review
MagazineDas Gas-feuerzeugStereoplayGerald O. DickPlasma1981TweeterNov116-124 Hill Type-1 Review, large
MagazineLAS VEGAS: A glimpse of the future at the Consumer Electronics ShowElectronics AustraliaGeorge TillettPlasma1982Apr28,32 and Hill Plasmatronics at CES
MagazineUn haut-parleur large bande a plasma froidLa Nouvelle Revue Du SonHenri BondarIon1982FullJun/Jul5973-80 info key
MagazineLautsprecher Transpuls MP-X-101HiFi StereophoniePlasma1982TweeterJul772-777 of Magnat Transpuls MP-X-101
MagazineTest (Magnat MPX-101)Hi-Fi Video TestPlasma1982TweeterNov29-30 of the Magnat MPX-101
MagazineMagnat Transpulsar MPX-088HiFi StereoPlasma1983TweeterApr58 of Transpuls MPX-088
MagazineEn Savoir Plus Sur Le Transducteur a PlasmaLED MagazinePierre le FurPlasma1983TweeterNo 818-22 detailed review of the Magnat
MagazineIon AgeHi-Fi AnswersJimmy HughesPlasma1984TweeterJulCover, Front Cover, Text from article in thread, Full article next month editor Keith Howard
MagazineIon BruHi-Fi AnswersKeith HowardPlasma1984TweeterAug61-63 Magnat MP-02, MP-X-088, article from the editor
MagazineLe premier casque a transducteurs a plasma froidLa Nouvelle Revue Du SonHenri BondarIon1984FullMar76100 info key
MagazineLow Inertia LoudspeakersHi-Fi NewsStanley Kelly1985Jan55-57 Inertia Loudspeakers Hi-Fi News Stanley Kelly 1985Technology overview key
MagazineAu casque Plasmasonic Audio ReferenceLa Nouvelle Revue Du SonHenri BondarIon1985FullJan8414-17 review of the Plasmasonic headphones
MagazineMagnat MP X 066La Nouvelle Revue Du SonSiegfried KleinPlasma1985TweeterJan8448-51 of Magnat MP-X-066 with MP-02 plasma tweeter
MagazineThe Search for the Perfect SpeakerStereo ReviewDaniel SweenyPlasma1985Sep194 with Klein Magnat and Hill Plasmatronics, also ref to American Audio Components Inc.
MagazineMagnat Speaker TechnologyStereo ReviewPlasma1987TweeterSep97 for Magnat with history, Plasma tweeter 1979
MagazineLe Haut-Parleur, meconnuScience & VieHenri-Pierre PenelIon1987Full64-68 Haut-Parleur, meconnu Science & Vie Henri-Pierre Penel 1987Alain Deraedt and ACWit Pascal Freulon key
MagazineOther Types of LoudspeakerElectronics AustraliaNeville WilliamsPlasma1989Jun107-108 Ionophone background
MagazineLes Haut-Parleurs IoniquesAudiophileAlain DeraedtIon19902285-88 corona wind detail key
MagazineLes Haut-Parleurs Ioniques IIAudiophileAlain DeraedtIon1990239 corona wind detail key
MagazineLes Haut-Parleurs Ioniques (suite et fin)AudiophileAlain DeraedtIon19902415-18 corona wind detail key
MagazineNelson Pass Simple Sounds BetterStereophileThomas J. NortonIon1991Full detail on the Ion Cloud corona loudspeaker
MagazineThe Strange Life and Bizarre Disappearance of John IversonThe Absolute SoundRobert F. SabinIon1994Jun/Jul96 good John Iverson background
MagazineTechnology Hot throat makes a safer soundNew ScientistCredo Audio AGBarry FoxPlasma1996Tweeter on the Credo tweeter key
MagazineIonic LoudspeakersGramophoneKeith Howard1997Jan133-136 Loudspeakers Gramophone Keith Howard 1997Good overview and history key
MagazinePlasma Speaker RevivedHi-Fi NewsBarry Fox1997Jan17 Speaker Revived Hi-Fi News Barry Fox 1997A hopeful review key
MagazineComfort like a larger room CSE A-3000 negative ion tweeterRadio TechnologyKazumasa TakahashiIonish1999TweeterOct5392-93 A-3000 - not really an ion tweeter, AMT tweeter with ioniser
MagazineSpund ScopeStereo SoundOkihiko KannoIonish1999Tweeter131 A-3000 - not really an ion tweeter, AMT tweeter with ioniser
MagazineThe why and the how of supertweetersHi-Fi NewsKeith HowardPlasma2000Tweeter info on IML Digiplasma - upper response to 40kHz
MagazineBuild a Plasma TweeterAudioXpressColin JoyePlasma2003TweeterApr34 Iss 4 version of Colin s Project
MagazineCare and Maintenance of DuKane Ionovac TweetersD. SchooPlasma2003TweeterDec and Maintenance of DuKane Ionovac Tweeters D. Schoo 2003Oct 2002 original
MagazineDukane Ionovac The History of a Brilliant FailureD. SchooPlasma2004TweeterMar Ionovac The History of a Brilliant Failure D. Schoo 2004History of Ionophone key
MagazinePlasma Tweeter Elettronica FlashDiego BaronePlasma2004TweeterOct29-34 and history of Ionophone
MagazineMacrosonic Plasma ReactorSUPA NewsHugh Potts, Declan DiverPlasma2007Nov7 this loud could suspend a person in the air
MagazineHistorically Speaking (Part 3)Hi-Fi WorldAdam SmithPlasma2008TweeterMar good history, Ionovac, Ionofane, B&W P2 (Sony) Pic, Plasmatronic
MagazinePlasma, a New Tweeter Technology Lansche Audio No.8SoftpediaLansche AudioFlorin TibuPlasma2008TweeterApr Audio - It's new all over again (2008) key
MagazineDas Licht am Ende des TunnelsHifitestLansche AudioPlasma2011Tweeter Audio Cubus Review 2011
MagazineThe ProfessionalsHi-Fi WorldHaden BoardmanPlasma2011TweeterMay70-73 of the B&W P2H with Fane Ionofane tweeter
MagazineLansche Audio 5.1 LoudspeakerStereophileLansche AudioJohn AtkinsonPlasma2012TweeterJul Audio 5.1 Review
MagazineEr leuchtet (Lansche No. 3.1)StereoplayHolger BiermannPlasma2014TweeterJan58-61 leuchtet (Lansche No. 3.1) Stereoplay Holger Biermann 2014
MagazineThe DuKane Ionovac SpeakerAntique Radio ClassifiedD. SchooPlasma2014TweeterJan134-40 background article key
MagazineBack to the Ion ageHi-Fi NewsKeith Howard2017Aug24-29 to the Ion age Hi-Fi News Keith Howard 2017Good history, some information based on this website key
MagazineLaunch of Sonarc a labour of loveThe Irish TimesOlive KeoghPlasma2017FullJun Plasma Speaker background article
Magazine60th Anniversary Edition Product Catalogue 2018FanePlasma20183 of the Ionofane from the manufacturer
MagazineAt 50 years old plus, you wouldn t really expect them to be cutting edgeHi-Fi WorldBowers & WilkinsDave TuttPlasma2019TweeterMay a B&W P2H review - but with the tweeters replaced
MagazineThe Von Schweikert Research VR-4 LoudspeakersPositive FeedbackCalifornia Institute of TechnologyStu McCreary, Albert Von SchweikertPlasma2020TweeterMayIss 109 plasma speaker Albert termed The Forcefield was built, which used high voltage to break air down into ozone that was then modulated by the signal to produce sound.
MagazineUFOs, Plasma Lasers, And The Pentagon s Voice Of God WeaponForbesDavid HamblingPlasma2021Jul details about laser plasma including creating the plasma in air with two lasers
PaperLetter from Dr. Higgins (hydrogen flame sound)Journal of natural philosophy, chemistry and the artsWilliam Nicholson18021130 the 1777 discovery by Higgins
PaperOn acoustic oscillations of the air in heated glass tubes and in closed pipes of non-uniform widthAnnalen der Physik und ChemieKarl SondhaussAir1850791-34 acoustic oscillations of the air in heated glass tubes and in closed pipes of non-uniform width Annalen der Physik und Chemie Karl Sondhauss 1850What it says
PaperOn the Influence of Musical Sounds on the Flame of a Jet of Coal GasAmerican Journal of ScienceJohn LeconteFlame1858Jan2nd Series 2362-67 sounds
PaperOn the vibration of the air in a tube open at both endsPhilosophical MagazinePieter L. RijkeAir1859Apr17419-422 the vibration of the air in a tube open at both ends Philosophical Magazine Pieter L. Rijke 1859More flame sounds
PaperThe PyrophonePopular Science MonthlyM. DunantFlame18757447 flame sounds a name
PaperOn Some Thermal Effects of Electric CurrentsRoyal SocietyWilliam Henry PreeceThermo1880May408-411 thermal wire work
PaperOn the Conversion of Radiant Energy into Sonorous VibrationsRoyal SocietyWilliam Henry PreeceThermo1881Feb506-520 thermal wire work
PaperFrederick Kastner ObituaryNatureFlame1882Jul26304 with Pyrophone info
PaperAkustische Erscheinungen am electrischen FlammenbogenAnn. PhysikHermann Theodor SimonArc1898Vol 300, No 2233-242 flames, the transmission of sound using arcs
PaperThe Reason for the Hissing of the Electric ArcNatureHertha AyrtonArc1899JulNo.1552, Vol 60302-305 investigative physics key
PaperThe hissing of the electric arcJournal of the IEEHertha AyrtonArc1899JunVol 28, Iss 120 most scientific detailed study of arc noise key
PaperSome Experiments on the Direct-Current ArcNatureWilliam DuddellArc1900DecVol. 63, no. 1625182-183 of the singing arc, cored carbon arc has no music in its soul key
PaperOn Rapid Variations in the Current through the Direct-Current ArcIEEWilliam DuddellArc1900DecVol 30, iss 148232-283 in The Electrician 46 269-273 key
PaperMusical ArcsNatureWilliam DuddellArc1901Vol 63542-543 detail of early discussions with Ayrton, Bradfield, Lockyer
PaperSur les phenomenes de l arc chantantEclairage ElectriqueBlondel, AndreArc1905Vol 4441-58 and 81-104 les phenomenes de l arc chantant Eclairage Electrique Blondel, Andre 1905Just ref, see 1906 link
PaperSur les phenomenes de l arc chantantJournal of PhysicsBlondel, AndreArc1906Feb77-97 early details based on Duddell s work
PaperSpeaking Incandescent LampPhysikalische Zeitschrift,K. Ort And J. RidgerArc1912 from lamp filament, inside a bulb though
PaperOn ThermophonesRoyal SocietyPeter De LangeThermo1915239 without a diaphragm
PaperThe thermophone as a precision source of soundPhysics ReviewH.D.Arnold, I.B.CrandallThermo191710, iss 2222-28 rather than wire
PaperDemonstration of the FlamephoneProceedings of the physical society of londonH.W.HeathFlame1922FullJan195 short description of a Flamephone
PaperA diaphragmless microphone for radio broadcastingJournal of the AIEEWestinghouse Electric & Mfg Co.Phillips ThomasPlasma1923MicMar219-221 glow discharge work
PaperSymposium on the Loud Speaker ProblemProceedings of the physical society of londonChester Rice, Edward Kellogg1924Feb, MarVol 36Parts 2, 3 on the Loud Speaker Problem Proceedings of the physical society of london Chester Rice, Edward Kellogg 1924General discussion on types of loudspeaker
PaperNotes on the Development of a New Type of Hornless Loud SpeakerJournal AIEEGeneral ElectricChester Rice, Edward KelloggArc, Ion1925Sep982-991 testing of a talking arc (and thermophone), some say at Bell Labs but this doc
PaperContribution a la theorie de l arc chantant musicalComptes rendus hebdomadaires des seances de l Academie des sciencesBlondel, AndreArc1926AprVol 82900-903 page for Andre Blondel references
PaperCellule thermoionique de grande puissance a atmosphere gazeuseComptes RendusS. KleinIon1946Jan1282-1284 thermoionique de grande puissance a atmosphere gazeuse Comptes Rendus S. Klein 1946Kleins first paper on the Ionophone key
PaperAugmentation du rendement de la cellule thermoionique a grande puissance par superpositionComptes RendusS. KleinIon1951Jul143-145 ionic ultrasound sources
PaperIonic LoudspeakersIRE Transactions on AudioJ. C. AxtellPlasma1952TweeterJulAU821-27 Loudspeakers IRE Transactions on Audio J. C. Axtell 1952On Klein ionophone
PaperThe Klein-Plessey Ionophone loudspeakerBBC R&DJ.R. ChewPlasma1954Jan-13 very detailed doc on the BBCs appraisal of the Ionophone key
PaperUn nouveau transducteur electroacoustique l ionophone AcusticaS. KleinPlasma1954TweeterVol 4, No 177-79 description of a new French loudspeaker Societe Audax - also in Proceedings of the First ICA-Congress Electro-Acoustics
PaperHistory of Sound Motion PicturesJournal of the SMPTEGeneral ElectricEdward w. KelloggIon, Arc1955JunVol 64294 about Kellogg and Rice with arcs, thermophones and corona discharge devices 1925
PaperCorona Wind LoudspeakersNatureD. TombsIon1955Full176923 first doc on the corona wind loudspeaker key
PaperCorona-Type LoudspeakerJASAA. Anthony, F. OdaPlasma1955Tweeter271005 multiple ionophones to deafen rats
PaperThe Corona Wind LoudspeakerJAESTelevex Co.G. ShirleyIon1957Full523-31 Dr. D.M. Tombs corona key
PaperElectroacoustics and TransducersJASAF. V. Hunt1958May30, No.5375-377 chart of acoustical ignorance, includes ionophone and corona wind
PaperDescription of a corona-type loudspeaker used in bioacoustic researchExperientiaE. Ackerman, A. Anthony, F. OdaIon1958FullOct14, Iss 10384-386 of a corona-type loudspeaker used in bioacoustic research Experientia E. Ackerman, A. Anthony, F. Oda 1958Experimenting on animals with corona wind
PaperOzone production by a corona-type loudspeaker and its toxic effects in mice ExperientiaA. Anthony, S. Babcock, F. OdaIon1959Dec15, Iss 12481-482 classic corona wind experiment
PaperCorona -Type Loudspeaker for Animal StudiesJASAEugene Ackerman, Adam Anthony, Fujio Oda Ion196133 application for an ion or corona speaker key
PaperA History of the Electric WindAmerican Journal of PhysicsMyron Robinson1962Vol 30 great general overview
PaperLandau Damping of Ion Acoustic Waves in Highly Ionized PlasmasAmerican Physical SocietyA.Y. Wong, R.W. Motley, N.D. Dangelo1964Jan133436-443 and electrons in a plasma move in phase
PaperExploratory Study Of The IonophoneMIT BScBruce Lowell Chrisman And George Moore IrwinPlasma1964Jun366-372 a detailed DIY ionophone tested in Helium (as per Plasmatronics) Argon
PaperModulated Combustion (Dragon) LoudspeakerJASAJames ArnoldFlame196538 newer version of the Flamephone
PaperThe STL-Ionophone sound sourceSTL-QPSRFransson, F.Plasma19656,No. 1No 2, page 27-30 Ionophone that was put to use key
PaperAcoustic Wave Generation and Amplification in a PlasmaAPSUno IngardPlasma1966May145, 41 look at plasma acoustics
PaperMusical FlamesNatureW. R. Babcock, K. L. Baker & A. G. Cattaneo Flame1967Nov216676-678 modulated by a diaphragm, not truly massless
PaperPreliminary investigation of the electrothermal loudspeakerCombustion and FlameJohn BurchardFlame1969FebVol 13, Iss 182-86 different name for it
PaperMusical FlamesJAESW. R. Babcock, K. L. Baker And A. G. CattaneoFlame1969JunVol 17 Iss 3312-314 modulated by a diaphragm, not truly massless
PaperAn application of the STL-ionophone as a microphoneSTL-QPSRJansson, E. V. And Sundberg, J.Plasma1969MicVol 10, No451-52 actual Ionophone application
PaperIon Acoustic Shock WavesPhysics of FluidsD. Biskamp And D. Parkinson1970JanVol 132295-2299 proper maths on the subject
PaperElectrical impedance measurements of an electrothermal loudspeakerJASAG. A. RussellFlame1970Vol 47, no 61482-1484 short but proper study of a flame speaker
PaperProperties of the STL-ionophone transducerSTL-QPSRFransson, F. And Jansson, E. V.Plasma197112No 2-3 page 43-52 actual Ionophone application
PaperHorn-type electrothermal loudspeakersIEEE Transactions on Audio and ElectroacousticsT. Paige, M. HamidFlame1972AugVol 20, Iss 3218-222 flame action, with horns
PaperExcitation d ondes acoustiques par une flammeCzech Journal of PhysicsM. Fitaire And D. SiniteanFlame1972B(22)394-397'ondes-acoustiques-par-une-flamme-Fitaire-Sinitean/ca84676431acd294fa51d86bcd5fa7eb7e183d0eUltrasonic potassium flames
PaperSound sources with corona dischargesDept. Phys, Ehime Uni, JapanKiichiro MatsuzawaIon1973NovVol 54, No 2494-498 technical detail on ion wind corona speakers (like Tombs)
PaperThe STL-Ionophone Transducer properties and constructionJAESFrans J. Fransson, Erik V. JanssonPlasma1974OctVol 58 No 4910-915 actual Ionophone application
PaperFlame LoudspeakersAcusticaM. S. Sodha, V. K. Tripathe, And J. K. SharmaFlame19784068-69 flame with DC bias study
PaperA corona-type point source for model studies in acousticsApplied AcousticsM.K.LimIon1980MicAugVol 14 Iss 4245-252 corona wind microphone
PaperCorona paperSov. Phys.-AcoustOstroumov, G.A.Ion198228159-60 paper Sov. Phys.-Acoust Ostroumov, G.A. 1982A corona wind speaker theory
PaperHigh-voltage spark discharge source as an ultrasonic generatorIEE Proceedings AJ. A. Cooper, R. Dewhurst, S. Moody, S. PalmerPlasma1984JunVol 131, Iss 4275-281 spark discharge plasma to laser plasma
PaperTheory Ingenuity And Wizardry In Speaker DesignJASAGeorge L. Augspurger1985771303-1308 designs position in history
PaperAn investigation of a DC glow discharge plasma loudspeakerIEEE int conference on plasma scienceMichael S. Mazzola,G. Marshall Molen, J. StrousePlasma19853 with different gases
PaperEffect of neutral fluid velocity on direct conversion from electrical to fluid kinetic energy in an electro-fluid-dynamics (EFP) deviceJournal of Physics D:Applied PhysicsH. Bondar And F. BastienPlasma1986191657-1663 title for some proper scientific research
PaperModeling of a DC glow plasma loudspeakerJASAMichael S. Mazzola And G. Marshall MolenPlasma1987JunVol 81, Iss 61972-1978 glow discharge tests
PaperAcoustics and gas discharges: applications to loudspeakersJournal of Physics D:Applied PhysicsF. BastienPlasma1987Jun201547-1557 overview key
PaperAcoustic refraction by a spark discharge in airJASAL. D. Lafleur, J. J. Matesse, And R. L. SprossPlasma198754(2) the sound reflection of an arc can effect itself
PaperElectroacoustic transducer using corona effectJAESAlain DeraedtIon1991Feb90th Conv494-498 more recent corona discharge work key
PaperDistortion, Directivity and Circuit modeling of a Needle Array Plasma LoudspeakerThesis Ohio UniversityRon SterbaIon1991MarThesis2-4 details on Tombs, Shirley, Matsuzawa
PaperSources acoustiques liees aux transducteurs ioniquesJournal De PhysiqueP. Bequin, P. HerzogPlasma1994May221-224 proper maths on the subject
PaperGeneration of ultrasound by an expanding plasmaJournal of PhysicsS Dixon, C Edwards, S B PalmerPlasma1996Vol 29, No 12 your plasma with a laser
PaperEtude des sources acoustiques associees aux decharges corona negativesUniversite du MaineV. MontembaultIon1997 on a corona loudspeaker
PaperFifty Years of Loudspeaker Developments as Viewed Through theJAESMark R. Gander1998Jan/Feb46, No 1/243-58 general overview of AES papers including corona key
PaperLaser-generated ultrasound: Its properties, mechanisms and multifarious applicationsJournal of PhysicsS J Davies, Corrolyn Edwards, G S Taylor, S. B. PalmerPlasma1999Jan from a plasma created by laser
PaperRendement d un haut-parleur a decharges corona negativesProceedings of the 5th International French Congress on AcousticsK. Castor And P. BequinIon2000676-679 research on corona speakers
PaperA plasma loudspeaker using a DC carbon arc in a modulated magnetic fieldIEEE Conference on Plasma ScienceIgor AlexeffArc2001 arc discharge modulated by magnetism key
PaperModelling of Negative point to plane corona loudspeakerThe European Physical JournalPh. Bequin , V. Montembault , Ph. Herzog Ion20011557-67 research on corona speakers
PaperCaracterisation des sources acoustiques associees aux decharges couronnes negativesUniversite du MaineK. CastorIon2001 wind study
PaperDirect Current Glow Discharges in Atmospheric AirIEEE Transactions on Plasma ScienceA.-A.H. Mohamed, R. Block, K.H. SchoenbachPlasma2002Feb30, No.1 cathode glow discharge study
PaperSound Attenuation by Glow Discharge PlasmaAIAAV. Stepaniuk, V. Sheverev, V. Otugen, C. Tarau, G. Raman, V. SoukhomlinovPlasma2003Jan experiment on the acoustic properties of a glow discharge
PaperThe Plasma TweeterMIT Colin JoyePlasma2003TweeterFeb presentation on basic plasma speakers
PaperFormation of Large-volume, High-pressure Plasmas in Microhollow Cathode DischargesApplied Physics LettersHae Il Park, Tae Il Lee, Ki Wan ParkPlasma2003May82, No.19 hollow cathode glow discharge work
PaperSolid State Plasma TweeterMIT?Sam Kendig, Danny Shen, Mike Seeman (Colin Joye)Plasma2003TweeterMayThesis on a plasma tweeter design
PaperBiefeld-Brown Effect: Misinterpretation of Corona Wind PhenomenaAIAAMartin TajmarIon2004Feb42, No 2315-318 Townsend Brown was questionable
PaperThe Physics and Phenomenology of Paraelectric One Atmosphere Uniform Glow Discharge PlasmaAIAAJ. Reece Roth, Xin Dai, Jozef Rahel, Daniel M. ShermannPlasma2005Jan2005-781 a sheet plasma usable for audio Sonarc
PaperA plasma loudspeaker using a DC carbon arc in a modulated magneticfieldPulsed Power Plasma Science, 2001Alexeff, I., Grace, M., Araya, E., Loria, J.A.DPlasma2005Jun10.1109/ PPPS.2001 .961277 to his earlier paper
PaperModulated Plasma Audio TransducerYoungstown State UniversityMark BarlowPlasma2006Jan rough Magnat style plasma project
PaperReflection of sound by glow discharge plasmaJournal of Applied PhysicsV. Soukhomlinov, V. Sheverev, C. TarauPlasma2006Aug experiment on the acoustic properties of a glow discharge
PaperModelling Plasma LoudspeakersJASAPh. Bequina, K. Castor, Ph. Herzog, V. MontembaultPlasma2007Vol 121, Iss 41960-1970 detailed maths models
PaperPropagation of sound in glow discharge plasmaJournal of Applied PhysicsV. Soukhomlinov, N. Gerasimov, V. SheverevPlasma2007Apr experiment on the acoustic properties of a glow discharge
PaperAudio reproduction with atmospheric pressure plasmas Surface discharge deviceUniversity of GlasgowHugh Potts, Declan DiverPlasma2007Dec surface plasma discharge speaker
PaperEFA Loudspeakers (Kronos Air Technologies)ESA Annual Meeting on ElectrostaticsIgor A. Krichtafovitch, Sergey V. Karpov, Nels E. Jewell-Larsen,Jacob L. Oharah, Vladislav A. KorolevIon2008A2 paper on the Kronos speaker, almost a commercial corona wind
PaperHydraulophones: Acoustic musical instrumentsUniversity of TorontoRyan Jazen2008Thesis1-5 terminology reference
PaperThe Historical Development of Speakers and their useTU Berlin, Dept. of CommGeorg Sabnowski2008SepThesis on Ion Speakers, Otto Braun, Klein
PaperSuspended metal wire array as a thermoacoustic sound sourceApplied Physics LettersA. O. Niskanen,J. Hassel,M. Tikander,P. Maijala,L. Gronberg, P. HelistoThermo200995 fine wires thermal speaker
PaperA study of the plasma tweeterBall State Uni ThesisKalalau CantrellPlasma2011TweeterMayA-342 on a basic plasma speaker
PaperLooking into a Plasma LoudspeakerIEEE Transactions on Plasma ScienceYvonne Sutton, Jon Moore, David Sharp, N BraithwaitePlasma2011Nov, Vol 392146 on plasma speaker with Schlieren pics key
PaperElectro-Acoustic Coupling in a Plasma GasThe Open UniversityYvonne SuttonPlasma2012 detailed study of plasma sound
PaperBlondel et les Oscillations Auto-EntretnuesArchive for History of Exact SciencesJean-Marc Ginoux, Rene LoziArc2012MayVol 66485-530 detailed summary of Andre Blondel s work
PaperThe singing arc The oldest memristor?Building Service-Oriented Government Lessons, Challenges and ProspectsJean-Marc Ginoux, Bruno RosettoArc2012AugChap 39 arcs behaviour redefined, early history
PaperOn the study of Ionic MicrophoneJAESHiroshi Akino, Hirofumi Shimokawa, Tadashi Kikutani, Jackie GreenIon2012MicOct133th Conv study on a corona wind microphone
PaperModelling of a corona discharge microphoneJournal of Physics D:Applied PhysicsPhilippe Bequin, V Joly And Ph HerzogIon2013AprVol 46, no 17 work on the corona microphone
PaperStable sound wave generation in weakly ionized air mediumOdessa National Polytechnic UniversityMaxim Chizhov, Maxim Eingorn,Vladimir KulinskiiIon2013Apr corona wind study
PaperDesign and Evaluation of Electronic Circuit for Plasma SpeakerWorld Congress on EngineeringDaniel Severinsen And Gourab Sen GuptaPlasma2013JulII oddly common circuit as an academic paper
PaperPhysics of thermo-acoustic sound generationJournal of Applied PhysicsDaschewski,Boehm,Prager,Kreutzbruck And HarrerThermo2013SepVol 114 and plasma modelling equations key
PaperAcoustic testing in a very small space based on a point sound source generated by laser-induced breakdown: Stabilization of plasma formationJournal of Sound and VibrationNaoki Hosoya, Masaki Nagata, Itsuro KajiwaraPlasma2013SepVol 332 Iss 194572-4583 sounds from plasma created by laser
PaperTransit-time effects on the electrical admittance of a corona dischargeAnales AFAP. Gomez a,E. D Onofrio a,G. SantiagoIon2013FullNovVol 25, No 3146-150 scientific analysis of corona wind response
PaperInitial Plasma Speaker AnalysisPPPL - Princeton Plasma Physics LaboratorySylvan ZhengPlasma2013FullNov decent thorough analysis of a plasma speaker, a brush discharge, key
PaperThe electrical imagination sound analogies, equivalent circuits, and the rise of electroacousticsOsirisRoland Wittje2013Vol 28 #140-63 section on ionic and plasma speakers
PaperA Comparison Between Dynamic Loudspeakers and Plasma LoudspeakersLulea University of TechnologyAleksandar Jovic2014JunThesis very well researched doc but okay for a start
PaperThe High Fidelity Plasma Speaker APS Division of Plasma Physics, Salisbury UniversityJames McgallPlasma2014OctVol 59, No 15 magnetically stabilised plasma speaker
PaperPlasma SpeakerInternational Journal of Scientific & Engineering ResearchSagar Samant, Mohammed Husein Sabuwala, Bhargav Gokalgandhi, Amit PandeyPlasma2014SepVol 5, Iss 9572-574 of a crude plasma speaker
PaperNon-contact acoustic tests based on nanosecond laser ablation: Generation of a pulse sound source with a small amplitudeJournal of Sound and VibrationNaoki Hosoya, Itsuro Kajiwara, Tatsuo Inoue, Koh UmenaiPlasma2014SepVol 333, Iss 184254-4264 laser plasma creating sound
PaperStable Generation Sound Waves In Weak- Ionized Air EnvironmentApplied Physics (Russian)Mv Chizhov Et AlIon20143243145-51 different version of previous study
PaperNumerical and Experimental Study of Amplitude Modulated Positive Corona DischargePhysicsP. Gomez, G. SantiagoIon2014 modelling of plasma speakers
PaperTime-domain and frequency-domain characteristics of audible noise from single corona sourceXuebao Li, X. Cui, Wenzuo MaIon2014 of corona noise
PaperThe correlation between audible noise and corona current in time domain caused by single positive corona source on the conductorIEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical InsulationXuebao Li, X. Cui, Zhenguo WangIon2015Apr noise versus current
PaperTime-domain characteristics of the audible noise generated by single corona source under positive voltageIEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical InsulationXuebao Li, X. Cui, Zhenguo WangIon2015Apr corona noise study
PaperAcoustic Characteristics and Distortion of an Ionic LoudspeakerIEEE LATIN AMERICA TRANSACTIONSP. M. Gomez, E. D Onofrio And G. SantiagoPlasma2015MarVol 13, No 3578-582 of a corona wind speaker
PaperCoherent Generation of Photo-Thermo-Acoustic Wave from Graphene SheetsNatureYichao Tian, He Tian, Y. L. Wu, L. L. Zhu, L. Q. Tao, W. Zhang, Y. Shu, D. Xie, Y. Yang, Z. Y. Wei, X. H. Lu, Tian-Ling Ren, Chih-Kang Shih, Jimin Zhao Thermo2015Jun modulated lasers to modulate heat on a graphene sheet to make sound
PaperThermally Driven Sound Source Application of CNT NanofoamsDelft Uni of TechnologyHengqian YiThermo2015Sept nanotube thermophone
PaperMembraneless Speaker or Plasma SpeakerBRNO UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGYJosef KovarPlasma2015 driver plasma tweeter
PaperKonzept und Prototyp eines Ionenwindlautsprechers29th TONMEISTERTAGUNG - VDT INTERNATIONAL CONVENTIONS. Merchel, L. Creutzburg, A. Schwock, T. Fleck Und M.E. AltinsoyIon2016Nov to plate ion wind speaker
PaperThermophony in real gasesUniversitat Potsdam thesisMaxim DaschewskiFlame2016Nov many different thermophones
PaperConductor Surface Conditions Effects on Audible Noise Spectrum Characteristics of Positive Corona DischargeIEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical InsulationYong Yi, Yuanjiu Wang, Liming WangIon2016 discharge noise
PaperPhysical modeling and characterization of thermo-acoustic loudspeakers made of silver nano-wire filmsJournal of Applied PhysicsPaolo La Torraca, L. Larcher, Marco Bobinger, Paolo PavanThermo2017Jun121(21):214502 nanowire thermophone
PaperWireless/Wired Automatic Switched plasma Tweeter & Speaker SystemJournal of Electronics and Communication EngineeringRupali Singh Et AlPlasma2017TweeterMar/AprVol 12, Iss 228-33 flyback plasma speaker, but good detail
PaperImplementierung eines Ionenwindlautsprechers ohne PlasmaflammeTechnische Universitat Dresden, Lehrstuhl fur Akustik und HaptikSebastian Merchel, Lukas Creutzburg,Andreas Schwock, Tim Fleck Und M. Ercan AltinsoyPlasma2017529-531 to plate ion wind speaker
PaperA simplified formulation of wire-plate corona discharge in airJournal of ElectrostaticsBouazza, Yanallah, Pontiga, ChenIon2018Apr9254-65 to plate ion wind speaker
PaperLow-frequency sound generation by modulated repetitively pulsed nanosecond plasma dischargesJournal of Physics D Applied PhysicsOlaf Boelke, Deanna A Lacost, Jonas P MoeckPlasma2018Jul lower frequency sound from higher frequency generated plasma
PaperAn Ultrasonic Plasma Microphone for Structural Health MonitoringPrinceton Plasma Physics LabJohn CarlssonPlasma2018MicSepWeb17-3317-1 with plasma for building monitoring
PaperThe creation of electric wind due to the electrohydrodynamic forceNature CommunicationsSanghoo Park,Uros Cvelbar, Wonho Choe, Se Youn MoonIon20180.632638889 wind flow study with Schlieren pics
PaperExperimental and analytical evaluation of the acoustic radiation of femtosecond laser plasma filament sound sources in airJASAKonstantinos Kaleris, Yannis Orfanos, Makis Bakarezos, Nektarios Papadogiannis, John MourjopoulosPlasma2019Sep work on a laser based plasma speaker
PaperAcoustic characterization of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge plasma jetsEuropean Physical JournalOpen UniversityVladimir Samara, Yvonne Sutton, Braithwaite, Sylwia PtasinskaPlasma2020Tweeter where the sound is made in a plasma jet
PaperCoupling and confinement of current in thermoacoustic phased arraysScience AdvancesDavid M. Tatnell, Mark S. Heath, Steven P. Hepplestone, Alastair P. Hibbins, Samuel M. Hornett, Simon A. R. Horsley, David W. Horsell Thermo2020Jul6, iss 27 thermophone study
PaperA review of the Plasma Loudspeaker (Ionic Loudspeaker):Principles of operation, general model and partsJAESMaria Carolina Rodriguez2020Oct149th Conv a plasma speaker works
PaperDevelopment of a plasma electroacoustic actuator for active noise control applications Journal of Physics D: Applied PhysicsS Sergeev, H Lissek, A Howling, I Furno, G Plyushchev And P LeylandIon2020SepVol 53 a corona wind speaker for noise cancelling in a pipe
PaperAudio emitter based on atmospheric pressure dischargeNational Technical University of UkrainePetro Oleksiyovych TsarenkoPlasma2020 thesis on the basics of plasma tweeters, fairly thorough
PaperCorona Discharge Actuator as an Active Sound Absorber Under Normal and Oblique SergeevIon2021Woofer/MidAug2108.13866v1 a corona wind speaker for noise cancelling in a pipe
PaperLaser-sound: optoacoustic transduction from digital audio streamsNatureKonstantinos Kaleris, Bjorn Stelzner, Panagiotis Hatziantoniou, Dimosthenis Trimis, John Mourjopoulos Plasma2021Jan behind creating laser driven plasma speaker
PaperMicroplasma microphonesActa AcusticaPhilippe Bequin , Adalbert Nanda Tonlio, And Stephane DurandPlasma2021MicAugVol 5, Iss 37 tiny plasmas as microphones
PaperDer Plasma-Lautsprecher als LehrversuchPhyDidFlorian Hubert, Friedrich-Alexander, Philipp Dorsch, Patrick K. Kroh, Hans-Michael GuentherPlasma2021Jul1/2015-25 plasma speakers to learn
PaperSound reproduction from laser-driven pulsed acoustic sourcesUniversity of PatrasKonstantinos KalerisPlasma2021Jul On sound generation using plasma from lasers, key, excellent
PaperEffect of time interval between pulses on the synthetic sound generated by repetitive nanosecond pulse dischargePhysics of PlasmasHandong Li ORCID logo, Yutai Li ORCID logo, Xinxin Wang ORCID logo, Xiaobing Zou ORCID logo, Haixu Wang ORCID logo, Haiyun LuoPlasma2021Jul lower frequency sound from higher frequency generated plasma
PaperNew high fidelity (hi-fi) three-dimensional thermophone CNT spongeExtreme Mechanics LettersJinxin Wang, Houyang Li, Yanxia FengThermo2021NovVol 49 nanotube thermophone
PaperSound reproduction through pulsed sources of visual stimulationPhDHellenic Mediterranean University, HMUXrisanthi Mpelechaki, Dimitris BarbarezosPlasma2021SepIss 387 ideas from Professor Nektarios Papadogiannis, laser plasma audio reproduction thesis
PaperCorona discharge actuator for active sound absorptionEcole Polytechnique Federale de LausanneStanislav Sergeev, Herve LissekIon2021Woofer/MidSep a corona wind speaker for noise cancelling in a pipe
PaperA Carbon-Based Thermoacoustic Speaker With High Vocal Efficiency and Low Power ConsumptionIEEE Sensors JournalCheng Zhao, Jiacheng Zhou, Shunyi Zhang, Qingying Ren, Debo WangThermo2022AugVol 22 Iss 18 nanotube thermophone
PaperTheory and construction of a plasma tweeterSignal Processing and Speech Communication LaboratoryNiklas UrbanPlasma2022TweeterJan tesla coil plasma tweeter project
PaperLaser-Sound Transduction From Digital Sigma Delta StreamsJAESKonstantinos Kaleris, Bjorn Stelzner, Panagiotis Hatziantoniou, Dimosthenis Trimis, John Mourjopoulos Plasma2022Jan an ADC to drive laser plasma speaker
PaperPyrolyzed Silk Carbon Fabric-Enabled Wearable Functional Actuators With Heating and Sound-Emitting CapabilitiesIEEE Transactions on Lu-Qi Tao, Guanya Wang, Hao Sun, Congcong Zhu, Zhirong PengThermo2023JanVol 70 Iss 3 silk as a sound emitter
PaperUltrabroadband sound control with deep-subwavelength plasmacoustic metalayersNature CommunicationsStanislav Sergeev, Romain Fleury, Herve LissekIon2023Woofer/MidMayVol 14, Art 2874 corona wind speaker used for noise cancelling
PaperLaser-plasma sound sources in atmospheric air: A systematic experimental studyJournal of Sound and VibrationKonstantinos Kaleris, Yannis Orphanos, Stelios Petrakis, Makis Bakarezos, Michael Tatarakis, John Mourjopoulos, Nektarios A. PapadogiannisPlasma2024Feb570 changing various parameters of plasma laser speaker
PaperLaser-sound reproduction by pulse amplitude modulation audio streamsNatureKonstantinos Kaleris, Panagiotis Hatziantoniou, Bjoern Stelzner, Dimosthenis TrimisPlasma2024May first experiments from the theory on laser plasma sound
PatentImprovement in pyrophonesFrederic KastnerFlame1873MusicUS164458 flame in tubes pipe organ
PatentSpeaking MachineEdisonAir1878US201760 air, nearly massless for ref
PatentArt of and apparatus for generating musicCahillAir1897MusicUS580035
PatentImprovements in and connected with means for theDuddellArc1900GB190021629 DC to audible AC using arc
PatentImprovements in or relating to wirelessBlondel, AndreArc, flame1903Full, micGB190215527, mic and circuits based on Duddell
PatentImprovements relating to the production of alternatingPoulsenArc1904GB190315599 lamp based telegraph transmitter/receiver
PatentImprovements in and relating toHermanusArc1906MicGB190604585 microphone, piston against electrode
PatentImprovements in wireless telephonyLee De ForestArc1907GB190628125 Duddell and Simon's speaking arc
PatentImproved method of transStilleArc1915MicGB191407202 microphone (reverse of singing arc)
PatentThermic telephoneLynden Robert Aernout BaronThermo1917US1389230 thermophone
PatentThermophone and method of making itBrowne Theodore, Brush CharlesThermo1920US1407726 thermophone variant
PatentThermophoneDe Forest LeeThermo1920US1526778 spiral thermophone in a record groove
PatentImprovements in or relating to microphones and the likeTri-ErgonVogt Hans, Josef Engl, Joseph MassolleIon1921MicGB157442 Kathodophone patent
PatentThermic TelephonePieter de Lange, Robert Aernout Baron van LyndenThermo1921US1367949 Lange Thermophone patent
PatentThermophoneGray BuddThermo1921US1398687 thermophone
PatentImprovements in or relating to sound reproducing machinesJohn George Aulsebrook KitchenFlame1922FullGB178911 Flamephone patent
PatentTelephone TransmitterRichard EnglerIon1923US1443620 use of word Ionophone, but not one
PatentImprovements in telephonic transmitters and receiversDrahtlose Telegraphie GmbhArc1924Full/MicGB203293 A single arc device used as both mic and speaker
PatentImprovements in apparatus for translating pressure variations into electrical variationsWestinghouse Electric & Mfg Co.Phillips ThomasPlasma1925MicGB228169 plasma mic, also US1626648, GB207182, GB228156
PatentMethod of and means for translating sound wavesWestinghouse Electric & Mfg Co.Shrader James EIon1926US1605295 corona wind with radioactive electrodes for ionisation
PatentElectrical sound-reproducing apparatusForest Phonofilm Corp DeDe Forest LeeIon1927US1641664 corona speaker in a parabola key
PatentImprovements relating to elecGeneral ElectricIon1927GB264811 to plane corona discharge key
PatentGlow-discharge apparatus and method of operating the sameWestinghouse Electric & Mfg Co.Phillips ThomasPlasma1927US1626647 earliest glow discharge plasma speaker key
PatentGlow-discharge microphoneWestinghouse Electric & Mfg Co.Phillips ThomasPlasma1927MicUS1638893 mic
PatentSystem for converting sound waves into electrical wavesWestern Electric Co.Clyde Snook HomerIon1928MicUS1690255 microphone
PatentLoud SpeakerL. FleischmannIon1928US1687011 point to plane corona speaker
PatentIntertransposition of sound Lindenblad, RcaIon1928US1685075 to air/ground corona discharge. 189 patents!, Swedish
PatentSound reproducing method and apparatusRamseyPlasma1928US1680694 loaded plasma speaker mod RF key
PatentImprovements relating to elecGeneral ElectricGeneral ElectricIon1928GB265958 on a disc corona wind. Key
PatentImprovements in or relating to sound-emitting apparatusPintsch JuliusPlasma1929GB299847 or Spark loudspeaker with horn loading
PatentSound-emitting apparatusRubenPlasma1929US1702951 loaded plasma key
PatentMethod of and apparatus for reproducing soundLilienfeldIon1929US1723244 air flow around disc
PatentLoudspeaker arrangementLoeweIon1930GB303175 modulated ion source key
PatentSound reproducerRCA CorpWolffIon1930US1758993 points corona discharge. Ref to above patent 1695075 wrong!
PatentSound-emitting deviceRubenIon1930US1751888 cathode ion speaker
PatentImprovements in or connected with sound reproducing devicesBritish Talking PicturesIon1930GB303828A Forest Lee assignee in UK
PatentSound Producing DeviceDe Forest LeePlasma1931US1806745 gas flow with high voltage
PatentProcede et dispositifs de transformation des impulsions electriques en impulsions sonores et inversementHarry YagloglouIon1936FR794308 to plate ion speaker and mic
PatentMethod and device for transforming ultrasonic or infrasound wavesKlein S.Plasma1946FR910489 ionophone key
PatentMethod and device for transforming waves of audible, Klein S.Plasma1951GB659796 ionophone
PatentImprovements in or relating toKlein S.Plasma1956GB757358, Also-US2847516, GB757111, FR1041790, BE519086, FR67664E
PatentElectrical TransducerKlein S.Plasma1956US2768246, Also-GB756546, CH317527, DE1095883, FR1041790, US2768246
PatentIonic triode speakerHalus, HolcombPlasma1957US2793324 discharge around a hole
PatentImprovements in and relating toKlein S.Plasma1958GB792312 horn Ionovac
PatentIonic diode deviceHalus, HolcombPlasma1958US2830233 point discharge to hole
PatentIonofon-type electroacoustic transducerPlotkin E BPlasma1962SU151896 on the ionophone key
PatentSound ProducerTakis N. PanayIon1962US3022385 but producing ions with heated wire, radiation etc. not voltage
PatentInertialess TransducerDukane CorpWilliam TornPlasma1963US3105124 ionovac
PatentApparatus for producing soundGianni, DucatiPlasma1965US3185778 loaded plasma
PatentKoronaphonWilhelms WalterIon1965DE1462256 random point corona
PatentOperating circuit for a discharge type of transducerDukane CorpArthur Block, Jan RychlickIon1965US3177288 circuit
PatentAppareil sonore electrohydrodynamiqueElectrokineticsTownsend BrownIon1966FR1427695 wind based on Tombs, US3018394
PatentElectrohydrodynamic sound devicesElectrokineticsTownsend BrownIon1967CA771815 wind based on Tombs
PatentIonic electroacoustic transducerSeligson, LanierIon1969US3476887 points to blades corona wind (blades all vertical, points only one side)
PatentMethod etc. generating an acoustic outputUnited Aircraft CorpBabcock Wayne R, Cattaneo Alfredo GPlasma1970GB1199859 flame with high voltage, also US3565209 and US3516286
PatentA system for imparting movement to ionizableGuidance Technology Inc.Townsend BrownIon1972GB1274875 triode based on Tombs
PatentKoronaphonWalter WilhelmsIon1972DE2115544 for a plasma loudspeaker (modulated supply?), good basic design info
PatentCorona speakerDenjo Gepax Research Institute Co.Kami KiyoshiIon1975JPS5092755 loaded corona
PatentGuide-band plasma-type loudspeakerDoucet, HenriIon1975FR2246151 wind from radioactive surface
PatentOmnidirectional corona wind loudspeakerTDKKikukawa TakashiPlasma1976JPS5161816 speaker with diaphragm(!) to stop gas
PatentIon LoudspeakerYama Amp Masa ToshiPlasma1976TweeterJPS5167735 ion loudspeaker with a diaphragm to keep the bad gases in (!)
PatentGrid controlled ionic wind loudKiyoshiPlasma1978JPS53141612 triode, wires, single ended and push pull.
PatentIonic Wind Loudspeaker controlled byKiyoshiPlasma1978JPS53137128 triode, points, single ended and push pull.
PatentIonic Wind LoudspeakerKiyoshiPlasma1978JPS53142218 triode, just single ended, points
PatentIon SpeakerHatake KiyoshiPlasma1979JPS54119914 plasma speaker tube
PatentPlasma LoudspeakerHillPlasma1979GB2023373, glow discharges in parallel. US4219705, JP54143225, JP2918300, FR2422314, DE2913804 key
PatentCorona-loudspeakerKlein S.Plasma1980EP17886 key
PatentCorona-effect loudspeakerKlein S.Plasma1980EP17885
PatentSound emitterKlein S.Plasma1981US4306120
PatentIonic electro-acoustic transducerBondarIon1982EP65911 the actual Plasmasonic, Also-US4460809, JP58001395, FR2506551, EP0065911 key
PatentTransducer for the transformationKlein S.Plasma1984US4482788 EP0017886, SU1175352, JP55140400, FR245444, ES8100754
PatentProcess and device for converting a periodicBondarIon1984US4460809 pins and plates
PatentCorona effect loudspeakerKlein S.Plasma1984FR2544951
PatentCorona-effect sound emitterKlein S.Plasma1984US4464544
PatentElectroacoustic transducer with ion emissionValois DistributionFourriere Jean-ClaudeIon1985FR2559636 patent key
PatentIon emission electroacoustic transducerValois DistributionFourriere Jean-ClaudeIon1986FR2581497 patent but simpler than 636
PatentIonic electroacoustic transducerDeraedtIon1987FR2588710 corona wind
PatentElectrokinetic transducing metLeeIon1988WO8807785 wind, Offset wires to thicker bars.
PatentElectrokinetic transducing metLeeIon1988US4789801 wind, Offset wires to thicker aerodynamic bars.
PatentElectroacoustic transducerAlain Deraedt, Pascal Freulon, Ste CasoIon1988FR2613894 Ion Wind
PatentElectrode structure and driving device for modulatingUehara MasaakiIon1989JPH0194000 pull ion wind
PatentElectronic-Acoustic transducerJiyannkuroodo FuurieeruIon1990JPH02174398 wind dual point
PatentElectroacoustic TransducerFourriereIon1990EP370846, Corona/Glow modulated by plates. JP2174398, FR2638930
PatentTranducteur electroacoustique, et enceinteBayle Pierre, Gibert AlainIon1991FR2685156 point to plane corona?
PatentMethod and apparatus for tranIde, HashimotoArc1993US5220246 glow discharge (arc column), single point to plane. Based on DC TIG welder.
PatentSpeaker utilizing DC corona disMasaakiPlasma1994JPH06327099 to plane corona discharge,+ push pull
PatentMethod and device for arc soundEizoArc1997JP2643009 nozzle, a TIG welder
PatentCorona Discharge LoudspeakerKeith HowardIon1997GB2312590 wind wires with grids either side.
PatentCorona Discharge LoudspeakerAdam ChambersIon2004GB2403372 wind direct amplifier
PatentElectrode self-cleaning mechanism for electro-kinetic air transporter-conditioner devicesReeves, Lau, ParkerIon2004US6749667 conditioner with sound as a feature, US6713026
PatentPlasma acoustic transducer e.g. microphone, uses ionizedSchneider BernhardIon2006DE102005022174 laser created ion - really vague patent
PatentElectroststic Loudspeaker and Kronos Air TechnologiesIgor KrichtapovitchIon2007WO2007127810 EFA application (not granted yet, company closed), corona wind key
PatentSound generatorSony CorpNomoto Kazutoshi, Hirata ShojiPlasma2008JP2010141858's attempt at a plasma tweeter design
PatentHeadphoneAudio TechnicaAkino YutakaPlasma2008JP2008236235 headphone key
PatentSmall-sized ion speakerNakagawa KoichiIon2008JP2008206122 multi horn ion speaker
PatentMethod of Acoustic Wave GenerationKronos Air TechnologiesKrichtafovitch Igor A, Jacob Oharah L, Korolyov Vladislav A, Jewell-Larsen Nels E, Karpov SergeyIon2009US2009022340 US version granted
PatentElectricity and sound conversionYao ZongdongPlasma2010CN101778327 speaker controlled by magnetic field, or not the translation is vague
PatentThermoacoustic deviceJIANG KAI-LIThermo2010US2010054504 nanotube thermophone
PatentPlasma loudspeakerZhao Ge, Gao Yifeng, Cao Dong Plasma2011CN202218397 speaker, classic style with two electrodes, a reflector behind
PatentElectroacoustic TransducerAudio TechnicaAkino YutakaPlasma2011JP2011188037 tweeter on inert gas
PatentPlasma tweeter e.g. teslums tweeter, for e.g. acoustic labBraun AlexanderPlasma2012DE102010026112 speaker on tesla coil
PatentElectric-arc loudspeakerBoris G. VigerPlasma2012RU2496254 tweeter EAL/VA7 of Viger Audio/Plasma Voice
PatentElectro-acoustic transducerAkino HiroshiPlasma2013TweeterUS2013223647 Tweeter with inert gas supply key also JP2013175904, JP5777540, US2013223647, US9301042, JP2011188037
PatentControl device for plasma loudspeaker and plasma loudspeaker Lu YulongPlasma2013CN101820573 speaker amp
PatentMicrophoneYu AkinoPlasma2013MicJP5281428 based microphone
PatentElectroacoustic ConverterCopra AcousticChyzhov Maksym Viktorovych, Yun Kostiantyn MoiseiovychIon2014UA105621 wind, WaveIon
PatentElectroacoustic transducerYu AkinoPlasma2014JP5474614 speaker
PatentElectroacoustic transducerYu AkinoPlasma2015MicJP5777540 speaker and microphone
PatentPlasma loudspeaker earphoneShi PengPlasma2016CN105763985 headphone
PatentElectron tube ionic loudspeakerZhang ZaifeiPlasma2017CN205902064 plasma speaker valve amplifier
PatentElectroacoustic transducerYu AkinoPlasma2017JP6099143 speaker
PatentMicrowave plasma loudspeakerFu WenjiePlasma2018CN107948895 generated plasma
PatentPoint acoustic source sound generating mechanismSUZHOU JINGSHENGTAI ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION TECH CO LTDTang JunPlasma2018CN208029089 based plasma speaker, also CN108495246
PatentImproved plasma loudspeakerHu ZhenqiangPlasma2019CN110430515 arrangement of plasmas
PatentElectroacoustic transducer having controlled ion generationCopra AcousticChyzhov Maksym ViktorovichIon2019Mid/TweeterUS9445202 wind, WaveIon key
PatentAxial electric field electroacoustic transducer Copra AcousticChyzhov Maksym ViktorovichIon2019Mid/TweeterWO2019069289 wind, WaveIon
PatentElectronic effects device and method Ilja Krumins, Martins Melkis, Kristaps KalvaPlasma2019WO2019135196 in a gas discharge tube
PatentSystem and Method for Acoustic to Electronic TransductionJohan CarlssonPlasma2020MicUS201862627839 microphone for structural listening
PatentPlasma speakerSonarc InnovationsGilliganPlasma2020FullEP3513576 an unproven method of sound production from direct barrier discharge plasma Sonarc
PatentDevice for generating a non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasmaTDK Electronics AGPichler Johann, Weilguni MichaelPlasma2021FullUS10966309 plasma with a piezo transformer.
PatentTunable electrostatic ion and fluid flow generator and electroacoustic transducerSubrahmanyam DesarajuIon2022US11273465 wind speaker, detailed but nothing new key
PatentPlasma Based Noise Reduction SystemSergeev Stanislav, Lissek Herve,Volery MaximeIon2023EP4116967 Wind Speaker used for Noise Reduction
PicturesKathodofon (kathodophone)Radio MuseumIon1929Mic (kathodophone) pictures
PicturesIon plasma Corona Wind LoudspeakerDIY Audio2012 nice pics
PicturesB&W P2HCharlieStudioBowers & WilkinsPlasma2021Tweeter pics of the B&W P2H with Fane 601 Ionophone
PrototypeIonophoneAndre Dewald & Sohn AGPlasma1952Mid/TweeterNov Andre Dewald & Sohn AG 1952SWDemoed at the Swiss Radio Exhibition, radio manufacturer Deso
PrototypeCorona Wind LoudspeakerTelevex Co.Dr. David M.Tombs, Gerald ShirleyIon1955Full Wind Loudspeaker Dr. David M.Tombs, Gerald Shirley 1955UKTombs inventor, Shirley (Televex Co.) tried to develop it. Key
PrototypeIonophonic headphoneLaborantesGregor AntesPlasma1964Full headphones with Guido Melliger.
PrototypeSTL IonophoneKTH Computer ScienceFransson F.Plasma1965 Ionophone Fransson F. 1965Used for acoustic measurement
PrototypeFlame Loudspeaker, Talking FlameUnited Technology Center, UTCDr. A. G. CattaneoFlame1968 in a welding torch flame modulating it Wayne Babcock,K. L. Baker
PrototypeForce-field SpeakerElectro Research then Electron KineticsJohn Gordon IversonIon1973Full Speaker John Gordon Iverson 1973USBased on Tombs' corona wind key
PrototypeThe ForceFieldCalifornia Institute of TechnologyVortex Acoustical EngineeringAlbert Von SchweikertPlasma1976Tweeter under Dr. Richard Heyser, later developed a non-plasma speaker called forcefield too
PrototypeIonophoneOstroumov, G AIon1979 Ostroumov, G A 1979RURussian prof, ring arrangement
PrototypeIon Cloud PanelThreshold Audio Inc.Nelson PassIon1980Full Cloud Panel Nelson Pass 1980USPrototype corona wind wire based panel key
PrototypePush pull corona prototypeAlain DeraedtIon1987 pull corona prototype Alain Deraedt 1987FRPatent FR2588710, Science&Vie High Tech Article Pascal Freulon key
PrototypeToltequeAHL (Acieries du Haut Languedoc)Jean-Claude FourrierePlasma1992Tweeter at WCES 1992 with plasma tweeter. Tolteques sold were ESL. Ran the Plasmasonic Company, Audio reference
PrototypeSDP 001Credo Audio AGVinzenz von TscharnerPlasma1996Tweeter 001 Vinzenz von Tscharner 1996Demoed at Ramada by Townshend Audio, a late Ionophone clone
PrototypeEFA LoudspeakerKronos Air TechnologiesIgor A. Krichtafovitch, Et.AlIon2008Full classic corona wind design detailed, Company now closed
PrototypeWaveionWaveion, Copra AcousticMaxim Chizhov, Iskender DzhanagayevIon2014Mid/Tweeter at CES
PrototypeSonarcSonarc InnovationsPaul GilliganPlasma2016Full plasma to create a full range plasma speaker (not) Sorcha O'Brien
PrototypeIonomax (Lonomax)CloudsoundJianxing CaiPlasma2017Full (not funded), exists only as CGI renders of desktop stereo plasma
PrototypeionTweeterJoe ArnoldPlasma2017Tweeter, not funded and cancelled but looks like most promising on there
Text BookLes Causeries ScientifiquesHenri De Parville1862 Flame, Pyrophone, Unverified
Text BookSoundJohn TyndallFlame1867Chap 6260-301 Flames
Text BookThe Cyclopaedia of Electrical EngineeringGebbib Publishing Co.M. Slingo, Arthur Brooker, John PerryThermo1895Vol 2785-793, electrostatic
Text BookThe Electric ArcCambridge University PressHertha AyrtonArc1902 studies on the noise from arcs key
Text BookConduction of Electricity Through GasesJ. J. ThomsonArc Flame1903Chap 9, 13, 14417, 430-431 hiss, early arc and flame behaviour
Text BookDer elektrische lichtbogen, experimentalvortrag auf wunsch des wissenschaftlichen vereins zu Berlin gehaltenLeipzig, S. HirzelHermann Theodor SimonArc19118-10 book detailing his experiments as well as Duddell. He refers to his as the Listening Arc.
Text BookDielectric Phenomena in High Voltage EngineeringMcGraw HillF.W.Peek1915Chap 5 of corona in detail
Text BookTelephone ApparatusD. AppletonGeorge Defrees ShepardsonArc, Thermo191747-49 on arc and thermo based phones, good references
Text BookElectroacoustics the analysis of transduction, and its historical backgroundCambridgeHunt, Frederick V19545, 41, 49 home page for quote. A detailed book on acoustics that ignored any massless
Text BookHi-Fi Loudspeakers and EnclosuresRiderAbraham CohenPlasma195639-42 section on Ionophones
Text BookLoudspeakers of the FutureRank Warfdale Ltd.G. A. BriggsPlasma19585 th Ed.35-37 section on the Ionophone
Text BookHi-Fi Annual & Audio handbookZiff-DavisIon1958Jan Cloud Tweeter
Text BookThe Practical Hi-Fi Handbook Odhams PPlesseyGordon J. KingPlasma1959JanChap 5106-107 about Plessey Ionophone
Text BookBasic AudioRiderNorman CrowhurstPlasma195985 on basic ionophone
Text BookHigh Quality Sound ReproductionChapman and HallJames MoirPlasma1961505-507, pic of Plessey
Text BookAcoustics and Vibrational PhysicsArnoldStephens Bate1966317 corona wind key
Text BookTheoretical AcousticsMcGraw HillMorse, Philip Mccord1968Chap 12781-808 chapter on Plasma Acoustics
Text BookIonized GasesOxford, Clarendon PressAlfred Von Engel1969 number of pages on aspects of sparks and arcs
Text BookElectroacousticsNewnes-Butterworth M. L. GayfordPlasma1970Tweeter208
Text BookInteraction of electric and hydrodynamic fields NaukaOstroumov G AIon1979Chap 5143-170 mechanics of plasma
Text BookIndustrial Plasma EngineeringJ. Reece Roth1995Vol1,2 of plasma, vol 2 also in
Text BookOptogalvanic Effect in Ionized GasLebedev Physical Institute University PressN.G. Preobrazhenskii, N.Y. Shaparev, V.N.Ochkin1999 complete text on use of lasers with plasma
Text BookFirsts in High FidelityAudio Amateur Inc,Plessey, LeakStephen SpicerPlasma2000TweeterJan245 Ionophone used by Leak
Text BookLoudspeaker HandbookSpringer ScienceJohn Eargle20032nd ed385-412 survey of unusual transducers, plasma skin depth
Text BookLee de Forest King of Radio Television and FilmSpringer ScienceMike AdamsArc201234,35,196,220,221 de Forest King of Radio Television and Film Springer Science Mike Adams 20121897 Circuit for a speaking flame or talking arc
Text BookElectroacousticsCRC PressMendel Kleiner2013487-489 very confused mixed description of massless speakers with odd terminology
Text BookLaser-Plasma Interactions and ApplicationsSpringerPaul McKenna, David Neely, Robert Bingham, Dino JaroszynskiPlasma2013 text on laser plasma interactions and theory
Text BookThe Age of ElectroacousticsMIT PressRoland Wittje2016Chap 2.558-66 audio history with a war angle,excellent chapter
Text BookNewnes Audio and Hi-Fi Engineer's Pocket BookNewnes2016170 description of corona speaker
Text BookHandbook of Thermal PlasmasSpringerMaher I. Boulos, Pierre L. Fauchais, Emil Pfender2016 descriptions of everything plasma
Text BookCinema in FluxSpringerL. LiptonIon2021Mic263-267 history, Tri-Ergon history
Text BookHaut-parleurs Techniques de l IngenieurJacques JouhaneauPlasma2024TweeterE 5 17022-23 section on Ionophone in this training material
VideoTomorrows World March 8 19-05 1984 - MagnatTomorrow s WorldBBC OnePlasma1984TweeterMar feature in this episode on the Magnat MP-02, ref only
VideoGerald Shirley - AES LegendsAESGerald ShirleyIon2000Full long detailed interview with Gerald Shirley - Corona Wind Speaker at 1hr17 and 1hr44 to 1hr50
VideoElectro-Acoustic Coupling in a Plasma GasYoutubeOpen UniversityYvonne SuttonPlasma2011Sep to go with PHD thesis
VideoPlasma Speaker at the Princeton Plasma Physics LabYoutubePPPLSylvan Zheng, Andrew ZwickerPlasma2013Tweeter of plasma speaker used in testing
VideoAM Tower de-energizingYoutubeR.F. BurnsArc2014 arc discharge speaker created as side effect
VideoARC Plasma Speaker Playing Internet FriendsYoutubeExcelPhysicsPlasma2014Tweeter demo of the ExcelPhysics kickstarter tweeter
VideoInfoComm 2016 Waveion Intros New Audio TechnlogyYoutubeIon2016Mid/Tweeter Waveion demo
Video2D Animation waveionYoutubeIon2016Mid/Tweeter promo animation
VideoIonomax liveKickstarterCloudsoundJianxing CaiPlasma2017Tweeter basic plasma tweeter project dressed up as a full range product
VideoTalking lasers and endless flashbangs Pentagon develops plasma techYoutubeMilitary TimesPlasma2018Tweeter of laser based plasma speaker
VideoViger AudioAparatViger Audio, Plasma VoiceVigerPlasma2019 Audio video key
VideoWhat is a plasma tweeterYoutubePS AudioPaul McgowanPlasma2019Tweeter is a plasma tweeter
VideoNelson Pass interviewYoutubeAudiophiliacSteve GuttenbergIon2019Full Pass Youtube interview key
VideoUnderstanding Electric DischargesYoutubeSee the patternPlasma2022 explanation of plasma discharges from See the Pattern
VideoYouTube videos for plasmaspeaker.deYoutubeUlrich HaumannPlasma2022Tweeter videos for (above) with great detail
VideoHear Dr. Alan Hill s Plasma Tweeter at AXPONA 2023YoutubeTony SalsichPlasma2023Mid/Tweeter Hill Plasmatronics being demonstrated key
VideoThe Plasmatronic Hill Type 1 Plasma TweeterYoutubeThe Absolute SoundAlan Hill, Tony Silsich, Tom MartinPlasma2023Tweeter long video on the Hill Plasmatronics 2023 demo
VideoA simplified model for a plasma in electric and magnetic fieldsYoutubeNils BerglundPlasma2023 visualisation of electrons and ions in a plasma
VideoHigh-voltage physics - with David RickettsYoutubeThe Royal Institution2023 background to plasma physics
VideoNon-hifi use of plasmaYoutubeFranzoli ElectronicsFranzoliPlasma2023Music video channel which shows the non-hifi use of plasma well
VideoBowers & Wilkins Vintage P2H Plasma TweeterYoutubeBowers & WilkinsMike PPlasma2023Tweeter replacement DuKane tweeters
Web ArticleA New Speaker PrincipleSaturday Review of LiteratureEdgar VillchurPlasma1952TweeterSepVol 3560-61 complete opinion article on the Ionophone, Audax release info key
Web ArticleWikipedia DE - Ionophonic HeadphoneGregor AntesPlasma1964Full on Gregor Antes (for dates)
Web ArticleElectrovoice Ionovac loudspeakerScience Museum GroupElectro-Voice (electrovoice)West, RPlasma1981Tweeter a real Ionovac is located
Web ArticleMassless SpeakersEverything22000 brief general and inaccurate info page
Web ArticleWelcome to the Plasma Tweeter ZoneColin JoyePlasma2001Tweeter early site with a Magnat clone project (page Plasma Tweeters II good too)
Web ArticleThis page contains some plasma loudspeaker historyJay PhilippbarPlasma2001Tweeter dead site with some nice plasmatronics and diy info
Web ArticleWelcome to the Second Plasma Tweeter ZoneColin JoyePlasma2002Tweeter plasma tweeter project page from Colin
Web ArticleThe Plasma Mid-Tweeter ProjectColin JoyePlasma2002Mid/Tweeter tiny page with a hint of making a midrange plasma
Web ArticleThe Art of Speaker DesignNutshell HifiLynn Olson2002 info on plasma speakers at the bottom
Web ArticlePlasma SpeakerAndrew ParsonsPlasma2002Tweeter early project page
Web ArticleWelcome to Roger Russell's Page about the Ionophone LoudspeakerRoger RussellPlasma2003Tweeter OG Roger Russell
Web ArticleFull History and info on IonovacsRoger RussellPlasma2004Tweeter History and info on Ionovacs key
Web ArticleBerchet OnlineBerchetIon2004 early site with project corona wind photos
Web ArticlePlasma Tweeter HardcoreaudioSebastian MainkaPlasma2004Tweeter early project page
Web ArticleKronos Advanced Technologies shuts downmasshightech.comIon2008Full end of another prototype (EFA)
Web ArticleArcophonePerth ArtifactoryPlasma2010Music interesting version of plasma jacobs ladders (polyplasmic!)
Web ArticleMagnat Plasma TechnologyMITColin JoyePlasma2011Tweeter page on a diy Magnat clone
Web ArticleVR-100XS to debut next month! (forcefield)Audio CircleCal TechAlbert Von SchweikertPlasma2012Tweeter his own words - As I had built a plasma speaker system at the lab at Cal Tech 36 years ago
Web ArticleCool People Play Their Music With An Electric Plasma Spark, Not A Normal SpeakerTechCrunchExcelPhysicsPlasma2014TweeterFeb detail and hyperbole around the ExcelPhysics tweeter
Web Article30,000-volt-plasma stream powers new Kickstarter loudspeaker projectTechTimesExcelPhysicsPlasma2014TweeterMar is not 30000 volts and not new
Web ArticleExcelPhysics KickstarterKickstarterExcelPhysicsPlasma2014Tweeter Kickstarter (2014, main site now gone)
Web ArticleAudio Reference Le Son AuthentiquefrenchvintagehifiAudio ReferenceJean-Claude FourrierePlasma2015Tweeter para and pic - AHL Tolteque and Plasmasonic
Web ArticleHeaven or Hell The Lady or the Tiger The Rocky Mountain Audio Show 2015Positive FeedbackVaugn LoudspeakersLynn OlsonPlasma2015Tweeter Plasma II review
Web ArticleThe military wants to startle protesters with NOISE: Laser gun will terrify people using screaming balls of plasmaMail OnlineEllie ZolfagharifardPlasma2015Jul Mail crap, but early article on the military use of laser plasma sound
Web ArticleThe Once and Future TweeterPS AudioBill Leebens2016 nice overview article
Web ArticleLe haut-parleur a plasma et le haut-parleur ionique Audio Fanzinepoussebouton2016Oct short neat overview article with a forum
Web ArticleWizard on the HillAudio InvestigationsIon2016Oct John Iverson Force Field history and anecdotes
Web ArticleionTweeter Plasma Tweeter Speaker Hits KickstarterGeeky GadgetsJoe ArnoldPlasma2017TweeterFeb of a kickstarter with actual prototype
Web ArticleionTweeterJoe ArnoldPlasma2017TweeterFeb kickstarter of an actual prototype for low cost, most real kickstarter seen
Web ArticleSonarc - The world's first full audio frequency range, massless speakerCordisSonarc InnovationsPaul GilliganPlasma2018Full for Sonarc with their objectives
Web ArticleUS Military Developing Laser Plasma SpeakersHackadayTom NardiPlasma2018TweeterMar a laser to create plasma and a laser to modulate it for sound, non-lethal weapon
Web ArticleThe US Military Is Making Lasers That Create Voices out of Thin AirDefense OnePatrick TuckerPlasma2018TweeterMar based plasma speaker, limits indicate tweeter only at the moment
Web ArticleNon-Lethal Weapon: DOD seeks to use lasers to create shouting will-o-the-wispArs TechnicaSean GallagherPlasma2018Mar
Web ArticlePlasma Singing Foggy Perspectives of IonophonesSudonullPlasma2019Tweeter nice plasma article
Web ArticleSound Emitter Based on the Ionophone PrincipleN.N. Bochkarev, S.M. GavrilenkoPlasma2019Tweeter Russian ionophone with circuit and varied claims
Web ArticleIW blower 2 - pipeHackaday.ioDeepSOICIon2019Tweeter nicely detailed project on an ion wind device from Russia
Web ArticleLo IonophoneDiego BaronePlasma2021Tweeter DIY Version of Klein Ionophone
Web ArticleThe FlamephoneScientific and Projections Ltd.Douglas SelfFlame2021FullApr gramophone that modulates a flame, almost massless?
Web ArticlePlasma speakerWikipedia2023 s main section, varies in accuracy
Web ArticlePlasma speaker haut-parleur a eclairsmainguet.orgJean-Francois MainguetPlasma2023TweeterFeb good history and practical article
Web ArticleThe Story of the Lansche Corona Plasma, Corona AcousticDai TiankaiPlasma2023TweeterAug history of Lansche with a lot of Otto Braun Corona detail
WebsiteThe Plasma Speaker HomepageUlrich HaumannPlasma2003Tweeter OG plasmatweeter
WebsiteA Solid-State, FET-Based Ion TweeterColin Joye, Rob Alejnikov, Mark BlattnerPlasma2002Tweeter old site but good project information
WebsitePlasma Tweeter site (old Plasma Speaker/Plasmaton)plasmatweeter.deUlrich HaumannPlasma2010Tweeter (but different) version of
WebsiteIonovac.comionovac.comJack Podplesky, Daniel SchooPlasma2013Tweeter very good but dead site, link to the wayback machine key
WebsiteMagnat Hifi MuseumPlasma2015Tweeter general site on Magnat speakers including the plasma tweeters, was
WebsiteMagnat Hifi Museum archivePlasma2015Tweeter general site on Magnat speakers including the plasma tweeters, archived version
WebsiteExcelPhysicsExcelPhysicsPlasma2016Tweeter last version of the ExcelPhysics kickstarter store
WebsitePlasmatonplasmaspeaker.deUlrich HaumannPlasma2022Tweeter Speaker top site key


The Categories column contains these:
Commercial - key successful designs you could buy
Early History - a reference to the earliest work
Forum - a web forum
Prototype - key notable designs that were never sold
Text Books
Website - a complete site related to massless designs
Web article - a web based magazine article

Type column contains these types:
Plasma - glow (or brush) discharge plasma based, such as an Ionophone
Arc - arc discharge plasma based, such as a singing arc
Ion - ion wind based, such as an ion cloud or corona
Flame - flame based, such as a pyrophone
Thermo - thermodynamic based, such as a thermophone

Range column contains these ranges:
Tweeter - High human range frequencies, such as treble
Mid - mid human range frequencies, such as voice
Woofer - low human range frequencies, such as bass
Full - wide human range frequencies, covering the whole human hearing range
Mic - a sound to electricity transducer, not a speaker
Music - the device produces musical sounds rather than accurate sound reproduction


©Copyright Adam Chambers 2024

Contact the Author

Cookie Policy

Plasma Speaker and Tweeter Ionophone Information

Plasma Loudspeakers

Ionovac and Plasmatronic

Plasma Tweeters

Plasma Speaker
Corona Wind or Ionic and Ion Speakers