Theoretical Massless Speakers
Yes a brain with some plasma
DesignerCompanyDesign NameOther PeopleTypeYearNotes
Dr. D.M.Tombs(worked for Hoover!)Corona Wind LoudspeakerGerald ShirleyCZ1955Prototypes only, Gerald Shirley tried to market it.
Fransson F.KTH Computer ScienceSTL IonophoneB1965Used for acoustic measurement
Dr. A. G. CattaneoUnited Technology Center, UTCFlame Loudspeaker, Talking FlameWayne Babcock,K. L. BakerFlame1968Electrodes in a welding torch flame modulating it
Albert Von SchweikertCal Tech (uni)A plasma driverDr. Richard HeyserB1970 sDeveloped for a US company?
John Gordon IversonElectro Research then Electron KineticsForce-field SpeakerCXY1973Based on Tombs' corona wind
Ostroumov, G AIonophoneC1979Russian prof, ring arrangement
Gregor AntesLaborantesIonophoneGuido MelligerB1980 s?Plasma headphones
Nelson PassThreshold Audio Inc.Ion Cloud PanelCZ1980 sPrototype corona wind wire based panel
IMLIMLDigiplasmaBX1981PWM Prototype
Alain DeraedtPush pull corona prototypePascal FreulonC1987Patent FR2588710, Science&Vie High Tech Article
Jean-Claude FourriereAHL (Acieries du Haut Languedoc)ToltequeRan the Plasmasonic Company, Audio referenceB1990Demoed at trade shows. Tolteques sold were ESL
CredoCredo Audio AGSDP 001Vinzenz von TscharnerBX1996Demoed at Ramada by Townshend Audio, a late Ionophone clone
Igor A. Krichtafovitch, et.alKronos Air TechnologiesEFA LoudspeakerCZ2008A classic corona wind design detailed, Company now closed
Iskender DzhanagayevWaveionWaveionVitaliCYX2014Sought funding, demoed at CES etc.
Paul GilliganSonarc InnovationsSonarcSorcha O'BrienBZ2016Multiple small plasmas to create a full range plasma speaker
Jianxing CaiCloudsoundIonomax (Lonomax)BZ2017Kickstarter (not funded), exists only as CGI renders of desktop stereo plasma
Driver type Key:

A Arc discharge
B Glow discharge / Plasma
C Corona wind (ion cloud)


X Tweeter
Y Mid-range
Z Full range

A few more early notable designs that were either not quite massless or not quite a loudspeaker.  They still created sound using ultra low or massless means.

DesignerNameOther PeopleTypeYearNotes
Dr Byron HigginsSinging FlameHydrogen flame1777Resonant flame in a metal pipe
Karl SondhaussSondhauss TubeFlame1850Sealed end glass tube
John LeConteFlame1858Observed gas lights response to music
Pieter RijkeRijke TubeFlame1859Open ended glass tube
John TyndallSinging FlameFaraday, WheatstoneFlame1867Royal Institution demonstrations
Frederic Eugene KastnerPyrophoneFlame1869-85Also known as burning harmonica or chemical harmonica
Thomas EdisonAerophoneAir1878Here for ref, not 100% massless but an early compressed air attempt
Short & Parsons, VictorAuxetophoneHorace Short, Charles ParsonsAir1898Nearly massless compressed air amplifier
Hermann Theodor SimonSinging electric arcUniversity of GottingenArc1898Similar work at the same time as Duddell on Arcs
William Du Bois DuddellSinging ArcArc1899Oscillator based on carbon arc lamps
Valdemar PoulsenPoulsen ArcAlso spelt PoulsonArc1903A radio transmitter based on Duddell's work
Thaddeus CahillTelharmoniumArc1906Added arcs based on Duddell's work
Max KohlSinging ArcArc1911A demo of Duddell's design
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Info about plasma speaker and plasma speakers

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with ion cloud and ionophone

and ionic wind speakers aand plasma speaker
and more plasma speaker and ion tweeter



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